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3SBrandy introdution

Terms

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political spectrum
a way of visualizing different political positions.
Mao Zedong
was a Chinese military and political leader, who led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to the brink of civil war.
globalization
To make global or worldwide in scope or application.
John Locke
English philosopher. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) he set out the principles of empiricism, and his Two Treatises on Government (1690) influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Winston Churchill
was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Juan Peron
was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974.
Simon Bolivar
South American revolutionary leader who defeated the Spanish in 1819, was made president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia.
egalitarian
is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth.
individualism
is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty.
communism
is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production.
bourgeousie
the class that, in contrast to the proletariat or wage-earning class, is primarily concerned with property values.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790).
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries.
conservative
a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs.
Free market
describes a theoretical, idealised market where the prices of goods and services is arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand.
Benjamin Franklin
was one of the most critical Founding Fathers of the United States.
democracy
government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
ideology
the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group.
Protestantism
the religion of Protestants.
fascism
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
Ayatollah Khomeini
was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
nationalism
is a term that refers to a doctrine or political movement that holds that a nation—usually defined in terms of ethnicity or culture—has the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community based on a shared history and common destiny.
Adolf Hitler
was the leader of National Socialist (Nazi) German Workers Party. He was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933, and "Führer" in 1934, remaining in power until his suicide in 1945.
Fidel Castro
is the current President of Cuba.
capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
socialism
refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community.
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
totalitarianism
absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution.
The Enlightenment
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
feminism
the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.
Industrial Revolution
the totality of the changes in economic and social organization that began about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
Roman Catholicism
the faith, practice, and system of government of the Roman Catholic Church.
Islam
the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.
Caliphate
The office or jurisdiction of a caliph. The last caliphate was held by Ottoman Turkish sultans until it was abolished by Kemal Atatürk in 1924.
agrarian
a community which stresses the viewpoint that the cultivation of plants, or farming leads to a fuller and happier life.
evolution
change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution (1712-1778).
liberal
government party that consider individual liberty to be the most important political goal.
American Revolution
the war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
anarchism
is a political philosophy or group of philosophies and attitudes which reject any form of compulsory government and support its elimination, often because of a wider rejection of involuntary or permanent authority.
imperialism
is the forceful extension of a nation's authority by territorial gain or, some modern theorists argue, by the establishment of economic and/or political dominance over other nations that nevertheless are not colonies.
liberalism
refers to a broad array of related ideas and theories of government that consider individual liberty to be the most important political goal.

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