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Developmental Psych exam 1


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developmental science
a field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan
an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
continuous view
a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
discontinuous view
a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times example: infants have unique ways of thinking/feeling that are very different than adults
nature debate
inborn biological givens; based on genetic inheritance
physical and social world that influences development; environment
the lifespan perspective
development is 1. lifelong (no single age period is supreme on its impact on life; events have equally powerful effects on future change), 2. multidimensional (affected by a blend of biological, psychological, and social forces) and multidirectional (at every period, development is a joint expression of growth and decline), 3. highly plastic (change is possible through life and experience), and 4. affected by multiple interacting forces (biological, historical, social, and cultural)
darwin's theory
within a species, no two individuals are exactly alike
natural selection
species have characteristics that are adapted to fit their environment
survival of the fittest
genes are passed on to later generations who survive best in their environment to reproduce
oral stage
Freud's first psychosexual stage that develops between birth and age one; directs baby's sucking activities toward breast or bottle
anal stage
Freud's second psychosexual stage that develops between ages 1 and 3; toilet training- enjoy releasing urine and feces
phallic stage
Freud's third psychosexual stage that develops between ages 3-6; pleasure in genital stimulation arises; oedipus and electra complex kick in
latency stage
Freud's fourth psychosexual stage that develops between ages 6-11; child develops new social values from adults and same sex peers
genital stage
Freud's fifth psychosexual stage that develops in adolescence; puberty
Erikson; controls largest portion of the mind; source of basic biological needs and desires
Erikson; conscious, rational part of personality; emerges in early infancy
Erikson; conscience; develops between ages 3-6
B.F skinner; directly observable events (stimuli and responses) should be the focus of study
social learning-imitation
cognitive development theory- children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world
sociocultural theory- focuses on how culture (beliefs, values, and customs of a social group) get transmitter to the next generation; he believed that social interaction with children is vital
reveals relationships between variables; correlation is not causation
experimental design
researchers use an evenhanded procedure to make inferences
independent variable
expected to cause changes in another variable; unchanged
dependent variable
expected to be influenced by another variable
systematic/structured observation
when the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response
clinical interview
researchers use a flexible conversational style to get the participants point of view
clinical/case study
brings together a wide range of information on one person
longitudinal design
participants are studied repeatedly and changes over time are noted
cross sectional study
groups of people differing in age are studied at the same time
sequential design
conduct several similar cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (called sequences) at varying times
baby fat
babies grow in spurts; they gain baby fat until 9 months old then get slimmer
baby height
babies grow about 50% in height from birth to 1 year; 32 inches
cephalocaudal growth
from head to tail; head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body during the prenatal period
proximodistal growth
growth proceeds from the center of the body outward
left hemisphere of brain
sensory information and control of right side of body; verbal abilities; positive emotions; analytical processing
right hemisphere of brain
sensory information and control of left side of body; processes information; spatial abilities; negative emotions
brain plactisity
brain has ability to recover; cerebral cortex in infants and young children are not committed to specific functions and has a high capacity for learning
experience-expectant growth
brain depends on ordinary experiences to explore the environment and expect brain growth
experience-dependent growth
additional growth established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that occur throughout our lives
changes in sleep patterns during first 2 years
sleep is effected by environment; during 1st year of life, sleep patterns become more adult like; sleep needs decline from 18 hours to 12 hours a day by age 2
influences on early growth
heredity, nutrition, malnutrition, and emotional well being
classical conditioning
form of learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response; the neutral stimulus eventually produces the behavior itself
operant conditioning
form of learning where infants act on their environment and the result of their actions changes the probability of the behavior reoccurring.
a stimulus that increases the probability of the behavior
removing a desirable stimulus and presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence
gross motor development
control over actions that help infants get around in their environment examples: crawling, standing, walking
fine motor development
smaller movements such as reaching and grasping
development of reaching/grasping
1. pre reaching- hands moving around 2. reaching- 1st infant reaches with 2 hands, then he/she learns to use 1 3. ulnar grasp- adjust grip to object, then move object from hand to hand
developments in hearing
4-7 months: sense of music 6-8 months: "screen out" sounds from non-native languages 7-9 months: recognize familiar words and phrases (sign language)
developments in vision
eyes mature rapidly; 2 months: focus on color and vision 6 months: acuity, scanning, and tracking 7 months: depth perception
depth perception
3-4 weeks: sensitivity to motion cues 2-3 months: sensitivity to binocular cues 6-7 months: sensitivity to pictorial cues and wariness to heights
pattern perception
1 month: prefer single, large, simple patterns with high contrast; face like patterns 2-3 months: ability to detect detail in complex patterns 4 months: can detect patterns even if boundaries are not present 12 months: can detect object even if 2/3 of picture is missing
face perception
birth-1 month: prefer simple facelike patterns 2-4 months: can distinguish between familiar and strange faces; prefer complex facial patterns; prefer mother's face 5-12 months: can perceive emotions on faces
sensorimotor stage
piaget; from birth to 2 years; building schemes through sensory and motor exploration; do not think about emotion or logic yet
reflexive scheme
sensorimotor substage from birth-1 month; newborn reflexes
primary circular reactions
sensorimotor substage from 1-4 months; simple motor habits centered around own body
secondary circular reactions
sensorimotor substage from 4-8 months; repeat interesting effects
coordination of secondary circular reactions
sensorimotor substage from 8-12 months; intentional goal directed behavior
tertiary circular reactions
sensorimotor substage from 12-18 months; exploration of objects' properties through novel actions
mental representation
sensorimotor substage from 18 months-2 years; internal depiction of objects or events
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
mental representations
internal mental depictions of objects, people, events, and information
deferred imitation
develops at about 18 months; bringing two separate experiences that have been seen together
sociocultural theory
Vygotsky believed that other people contribute to cognitive development (social context) and that there are tasks children can not do alone but can learn with the help of an adult (xone of proximal development)
characteristics of developmentally appropriate child care
adult child interactions, teacher qualifications, relationships with parents, licensing and accreditation, group size, physical setting, caregiver-child ratio, and daily activities
theories of language acquisition
behaviorist (learned through operant conditioning/imitation), nativist (language acquisition device to biologically prepare infants), and interactionalist (social context is important)
first speech sound-vowel like noises
first speech sound-making sounds but not complete words or sentences
beginning to talk
first words; underextension (toddlers applying first words too narrowly) and overextension (applying a word to a wider collection of vocabulary), and two word utterances; telegraphic speech (focus on higher content words, omitting smaller, less important ones)

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