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Chapter 9- Ancient Rome

Terms

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Sicily
An island in the Medittereanean Sea off the south west tip of the Italian peninsula
Carthage
An ancient city on the north coast of Africa
dictator
A ruler who has absolute power
Alps
Europe's highest mountains, extending in an arc from the Mediterreaen coast to the Balkan peninsula
Livy
Historian of the Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between plebeians and patricians of Rome
Julius Ceasar
Roman general who became the republic's dictator in 45 B.C.
Diocletian
Roman emperor who divided the emipire into two and oversaw the eastern part
Apennine Mountains
A mountain range on the Italian peninsula
Latium
A plain on the west coast of Italy on which the city of Rome was built
Punic Wars
A series of conflicts between Rome and Carthage in the 200 B.C., ending in victory for Rome
Messiah
A special leader the Jewish people believe will be sent by God to guide them and set up God's rule on Earth. Christians believed Jesus to be the Messiah
Cleopatra
Rulerof Egption government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war from 49 to 45 B.C.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A branch of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine empire and did not recognize the pope as it's supreme leader
republic
A form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them
New Testament
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and his early followers
consul
One of the two elected officials of the Roman republic who commanded the army and were supreme judges
Hannibal
General of Carthage who marched his army from Spain to Rome in the second Punic War
Pompeii
An acient city in southernwest Italy thta was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79
Scipio
Roman general who defeated Hannibal in the Battle of Zama outside Carthage, North Africa
aqueduct
A high, arched structure built to carry water over long distaces
pope
The bishop, or church leader of Rome and head of Roman Catholic Church
Tiber River
A river flowing southward from north-central Italy across the Latium plain
Pax Romania
A period of peace for the Roman empire that began with the rule of Augustus in about 27 B.C.
Zama
Site in northern Africa where the Roman armuy defeated the Carthagian army in 202 B.C.
tribune
An elected leader of Ancient Rome who represented the interest of the plebians
Gaul
An ancient region and Roman providence that included most of present-day France
plebian
A common farmer, trader, or craftworker in Ancient Rome
Nazareth
A small town in Northern Judia where, according to the New Testament, Jesus grew up
profile
In geography, a map showing a cross-section of a lands surface
Paul
Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world
architecture
The science of planning and constructing buildings
Forum
The city market and meeting place in the center of Ancient Rome

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