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Political Science Chapter 4


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De Jure Segregation
Segregation enacted into law and imposed by the government
Civil Rights
The powers or privileges that are conferred on citizens by the Constitution and the courts and that entitle them to make claims upon the government. They protect individuals from arbitrary or discriminatory treatment at the hands of the government
Black Codes
Laws enacted by southern legislatures after the Civil War that prevented former slaves from voting and holding certain jobs, among other prohibitions
Fugitive Slave Law
The 1850 law compelling northerners to honor southerners’ property claims to slaves, passed in return for the South’s agreeing to admit California as a free state (and hence lose its ability to block legislation in the Senate)
A tax imposed on people when they register to vote. In the decades after the Civil War this tax was used primarily to disenfranchise black voters. With passage of the Twenty-fourth Amendment, in 1964, it became unconstitutional
Racial Profiling
Identifying the suspects of a crime solely on the basis of their race or ethnicity
Grandfather Clause
A statute stating that only those people whose grandfather had voted before Reconstruction could vote, unless they passed a literacy or wealth test. After the Civil War this mechanism was used to disenfranchise African Americans
The political and social practice of separating whites and blacks into dual and highly unequal schools, hospitals, prisons, public parks, housing, and public transportation
De Facto Segregation
Segregation that results from practice rather than from law
Hate Crime
A violent crime directed against individuals, property, or organizations solely because of the victims’ race, gender, national origin, or sexual orientation
Civil Liberties
Constitutional and legal protections from government interference into personal rights and freedoms such as freedom of assembly, speech, and religion
Affirmative Action
Policies or programs designed to expand opportunities for minorities and women and usually requiring that an organization take measures to increase the number or proportion of minorities and women in its membership or employment
Women who campaigned in the early twentieth century for the right of women to vote
Literacy Test
A legal barrier used to exclude African Americans from voting. Local white registrars would require prospective black voters to read and interpret arcane passages of the state’s constitution. Since few satisfied these registrars’ rigorous demands, by 1910 fewer than 10 percent of black males were voting in the South
White Primary
A practice that permitted political parties to exclude African Americans from voting in primary elections. Because historically in the South winning the Democratic primary was tantamount to winning the general election, this law in effect disenfranchised black voters in southern states
Jim Crow Laws
A series of laws enacted in the late nineteenth century by southern states to institute segregation. These laws created “whites only” public accommodations such as schools, hotels, and restaurants
Specific shares of college admissions, government contracts, and jobs set aside for population groups that have suffered from past discrimination. The Supreme Court has rejected the use wherever it has encountered them
Separate but Equal Doctrine
The Supreme Court-initiated doctrine that segregated but equivalent facilities for African Americans and whites are constitutional under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

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