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Ap World History Europe


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Definition: power vested in one sole ruler can manipulate public using threats and punishment
Louis XIII
Prime minister: Cardinal Richelieu
Foundation of absolutism
Wanted land from the Hapsburgs and promote an absolute monarchy
Crushed nobility: feudalism diminished outlawed walled cities
Centralization (tax)
Harsh punishment
Suspected Huguenots but did not get rid of Edict of Nantes
Supported Protestants in 30 years war against the Huguenots & Spain
French Academy, religion , philsophy and literature
Intendant System
Richelieu diminished the noble power by place intendants in charge of districts
They regulated the economy and the judicial grinds
Order and regulated gov’t
Louis XIV
“Sun King” peak of absolutism, culture and power
Divine right to rule for the good of the people
Palace of Versailles
Lavish court where nobles had to stay
Put their minds away from politics
Diminished the treasury
Culture flourished
Baroque style of architecture and French art
Wars in France
Constant warfare of expansion
Promoted new practices
Standard weapons , uniforms
Feed troops
System of recruit and training
Depleted treasury
Routines in court to enforce power
Never called Parliament
Repeal of Edict of Nantes
Building programs
High taxes on peasants
Diminshed economy
Colbert and Mercantilism
Factories erupted making glass, silk, weaving, food inspection and regulation
Marine system
Commercial classes prospered
Increase in taxes
Rebellion by the nobility : Fronde
Parliament wanted limit king’s power
Led the Sun King to gain power
Key success in gaining power for France
Spain- Philip II
Bourbon king
Spanish inquisition and relgious persecution led to centralization
Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands
They did not like a catholic gov’t
Had England’s support
Spanish Armada went to defeat them but ended up losing
Peter the great West serfs
Peter the Great – Czar
Westernized russia after the Mongols
Sea trade
Against Ottomans
Expansion and warfare
Army, schools,
Culture and education
St. Petersburg
Serfdom solidified
Poll tax
Social and economical reform (nobles)
Prussian army
Army was always at peace
The best were in the army
Junkers a rebel group came to head the army
Militaristic authoritarian unified state
Frederick II was the grand elector
Role in Trade Netherlands
Role in trade: controlled vast region
Const. democracy
England const. monarchy
Constitutional monarchy- established after the Glorious Revolution
Charles I ruled w/o Parliament
Long Parliament limited power
English civil war causes
Parliment vs. King
Charles I was the king
wanted to arrest members of Parliment
Parliment had own army
Irist revolt
clergy, nobles, king vs. merchants, puritans, people
English civil war consequences
commonwealth- group working for the common good
cromwell then dismissed commonwelath
military dictatorship
led to the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution causes
James II was a catholic
they did not want another catholic on the throne , but threated Parliment
Parliment invited William and Mary to rule and set up a const. monarchy
Glorious Revolution consequences
English Bill of Rights
Parlement as supreme
const. monarchy
European Wars causes 1500-1789
Dynastic rivalry , expansion, relgious reasons, political ( war of spanish inquistion, revolutions)
Balance of Power Politics
War of Spanish Sucession
The French had Philip II a Bourbon as heir to the throne.
The Grand Alliance against Spain and France fought against England/Holland/Austria Hapsburgs
Treaty of Utrect
France and Spain can never be united
Philip V did become king
France lost territory to England
England gained access to slave trade
declined Spain's power and ended French expansion
Economics and Trade
reasons for growth
Global Trade Network
Dominant trading rivals
Dutch vs. Spain
English vs. French
Scientific Revolution
Renaissance discovery and exploration
new discoveries contradict the bible
medical science tradition
progress in tech, policies, and humanity
Scientific Revolution
the Enlightenment
advancement in knowledge of surroundings
scientific method
proc. for gathering info and testing ideas
based on reason
belief that God created life but stepped back away from it
believed in God not the church
agreed w/ Coperncius
clash w/ Church
heliocentric theory
Copercian model
Consequences of Scientific revolutions
enlightenment and reforms
Enlightenment beliefs
humanists came to realize they could be better than the past
John Locke natural rights
life, liberty, property
can overthrow gov't
John Locke social contract
people had contract w/ gov't
can overthrow gov't
Enlightened despots
Catherine the Great of Russia
importing architects, muscians, intellectuals
restricted cruel punishment of serfdom free education, and also sought the advice of nobles and peasants in the running of government
Enlightened despot
Frederick II of Prussia
use of new crops
new planting methods and technology (crop rotation)
inc. relgious tolerance
laws simplified
intorlent of jews
Enlighted despot
Joseph II of Austria
abolished serfdom and allowed them to own land
taxed equally
religious freedom
philosophy or movement that has as its aim the development of individual freedom
liberalism values
change existing order
Classical liberalism drew upon the ideals of the Enlightenment and the doctrines of liberty supported in the American and French revolutions.
natural laws should govern society
French Revolution Causes Economic
Poor harvests
no money in treasury
French Revo. causes social
3 estates and their hostility
first 2 estates struggle not to lose their power
tax burden on the 3rd estate
French Revo. causes political
3rd estate did not have any power in gov't
Estate General - 3 estates
2 estate agreement to pass laws
weak out of touch monarchy
complex state
unequal distribution of right and power
French Revo. causes American Revolution
French aid. Americans: "our rights are being violated"
protest against tyraniccal gov't
French Revo. causes Enlightenment
Locke, Voltaire, Rosseu
social contract- right to overthrow gov't
natural rights of every man cannot be taken away
English, Dutch and American
Storming of the Bastille
getting rid of the monarchy
monarchy had prisoners and arbitary punishment
Paris mob attack Bastille (beginning of the French Revolution)
National Assembly
created by the 3rd estate
the Tennis Court Oath - write constitution
king accepted - constitutional monarchy
women had more rights
enacted reforms-
clergy and nobles paid taxes
Reign of Terror
countless executed for tyranny and mnay prisoned ; enemies of the state
after discovered treason of Louis the king
committe of public safety
Robespierre (Republic stage)
committe of public safety
made sure foreign invasion and domestic protestors squashed
oligarchy of 5 members later Napolean takes over
ended the revolution
sought French expansion, lessened the amount of unemployed
began to rule dictorially until Napolean overthrows directory
Consequences of French Revo.
ended fuedalism
priveliges of the 1/2 estates
declaration of rights of man limited monarchy stays
challenged the idea of divine right to rule
demo. gov't and social equality
Napolean: Domestic Accomplishments
peasant gains confirmed
amnesty to nobles
national educations
religious tolerance
ended free press, speech and elections
civil code 1804= equality middle class
abolished birth privileges
govt officials = merit
gave men control over wives
Relationship w/ Britain
Napolean `
strained wanted to capture English to rule europe and trade
Continental system
economic war w/ "nation of shopkeepers"
Battle of Trafalgar
fight w/ the British navy lost to them The decisive English victory ended Napoleon I's power on the sea and made a French invasion of England impossible
Invasion of Russia
Russians used field burning to end French invasion
French went to Moscow deserted tired
scorched earth
bad winter
many died
Battle of Waterloo
Napolean 2nd attempt after escaping but lost British and Prussians defeated the French under Napoleon Bonaparte
Earth Coalition
Russia, Prussia, Austria, GB
defead French army and take Paris
Napolean abdicated
Effect on Other countries after French revo.
France becomes const. monaryc again
Napolean empire ended
Napleonic codes in France
intro. of French Revo. ideas to rest of Europe
sold Louisiana Territory to US
weakened Spain so much
Legislative Assembly
deals w/ foreign invasion and conservative monarchies
suspended constitution
National Convention in France
abolished monarchy
codified laws
execution of King
export revo. ideals
created comm. of pub. safety
and directory

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