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Pols 137


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Define Federalism
A system of govt in which powers are divided between a central (Natl) govt and regional (state) govts.

Executive, Legislative, Judicial
Define Power
Ability of 1 person to get another to do what he wants.
Name 3 ways to exert Power
1. Coercion - force
2. Persuasion - convince
3. Construction of Incentives - where 2 of the 3 choices are bad and you must pick the 3rd regardless
Name the 2 types of Power
1. Manifest - obvious
2. Implicid - not as obvious (understood)
Define Political Indoctrination
The system must be taught so it can be passed on to the next generation or it dies.
Define Capacity
The ability to do things or get things done.
Name the 3 forms of Govt
1. Federalism
2. Unitary
3. Confederate
Define Unitary govt
**One in which all authority is derived from a central authority.

Power flows down (Natl to State to People)

It's efficient - it works.

This was the first form of govt of the colonies from England.
Define Confederate govt
**A league of sovereign states in which a limited central govt exercises few independent powers.

Power flows up. State/Local flows up to Natl.

Very inefficent form of govt.

1st form of govt of US
What was the 1st written form of govt?
Articles of Confederation
Name 4 types of Federalism
1. Nation-centered
2. State-centered
3. Tenth Amendment
4. Compact theory
Define nation-centered federalism
A theory holding that national govt is dominant over the states.
Define state-centered federalism.
A theory holding that the national govt represents a voluntary compact or agreement between the states, which retain a dominant position.
Define Tenth Amendment
The amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1791, reserving powers to the state.
Define Compact Theory
A theory of federalism that became the foundation for the state' rights arguments.
Define Federal system of govt
**A means of dividing power between National and State govts.
Name 4 clauses in the Constitution
1. National supremacy clause
2. Necessary and Proper clause
3. Interstate Commerce Clause
4. Sixteenth Amendment
Define National Supremacy clause
Article VI of the constitution, which makes national laws superior to state laws.
Define Necessary and proper clause.
Portion of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution that authorized Congress to enact all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its responsibilities.
Define Interstate Commerce Clause
Article I, Section 8, of the US Constitution, which permits congress regulate trade with foreign countries and among the states
Define 16th Amendment
Enacted in 1913, an amendment that grants the natl govt the power to levy income taxes.
Define Devolution
The delegating of power and programs from the federal to state and local govts.
Political documents
Every line addresses who wins and who loses something.

Written by someone who doesn't represent the whole of people
Define Model State Constitutionalism
An ideal of the structure and contents of a state constitution.
Define Positive Law tradition
A state constitutional tradition based on detailed provisions and procedures.
Define Higher law tradition
A state constitutional tradition based on basic and enduring principles that reach beyond statutory law.
Name the years for the 4 MO constitutions
4 ways to change the constitution
1. Constitutional commission
2. Constitutional convention
3. Initiatives
4. Judicial review/Interpretation
Define Constitutional Convention
An assembly of delegates chosen by popular election or appointed by popular election or appointed by the legislature or the governor to revise an existing constitution or to create a new one.
Define Constitutional Commission
A meeting of delegates appointed by the governor or legislature to study constitutional problems and propose solutions
Define Initiatives
A proposed law or constitutional amendment that is placed on the ballot by citizen petition.

Ballot and Legislature proposal
Define Judicial Review
The power of the US Supreme Court or state supreme courts to declare unconstitutional not only actions of the executive and legislative branches, but also decisions of lower courts.
Political Science - two types of:
1. Traditionalist (study people)case studies
2. Behavioralist (study behavior) quantify by numbers.
Define Judicial Federalism
Idea state supreme courts and state courts basing their decisions on state constitutions instead of national constitutions.

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