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political science 1050 exam 2


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what is it called when competing interests balance each other by bringing resources and arguments to bear on different sides of important public policy decisions
what are those we nomally think of as subject to market forces and laws of supply and demand?
private goods
what is it when a key characteristic of private goods and services is that individuals can be prevented from using, consuming, or enjoying them by pricing mechanisms, the costliness of production and scarcity.
something people may use, consume, or enjoy
public good
what is it when public goods are often cpoiled or not provided at all because people can use, consume, or enjoy them without paying the associated costs
free riders
some public policy decisions allocate substantial benefits to only a few individuals or small groups
concentrated benefits
what do interest groups do?
-organize individuals with similar interests
-inform the public and elected reps
-organize electoral competition

facts and analyses designed to shape opinions in a way that reflects their objectives and interpretations of issues
interested expertise
interest groups also participate indirectly by:
1-producing voter guides and summaries of the issues designed to aid voters
2-buying television advertising meant to influence elections
3-work to increase voter participation

interest groups generally do not put their own members into...
elected office
interest groups do seek to put their members into...
appointed offices
what do interest group members do in the appointed offices?
carry out their state responsibilities in ways which favor policies supported by the interest groups which helped them get appointed
the texas governor is reponsible for appointing the members of approximately -----, ---- and -----

many national organizations attempt to set broad ----- ------, then to integrate their ----- and ----- level affiliates in their larger strategies
political objectives
local and state
interest groups in the state also try to affect policy by

suing under federal law in the federal court system
direct, private, face-to-face contact with public officials to explain your position on political and social issues in order to shape policymaking
what defined as a felonly the receiving of campaign contributions with an agreement to act in the contributors interest?
the 1991 texas ethics law
who are the prominent group technologies?
-petitions, letter writing, and phone-in campaigns
-public demonstrations
-media campaigns
-attending public meetings
-legal action
-illegal action

can be especially effective on the local level where meetings are often sparsely attended
attending public meetings
is the legal action strategy expensive or inexpensive?
what are illegal actions?
-sit-ins and occupations
-violence and sabotage

what were widely used during the 1950s and 1960s in the struggle for civil rights in the south and protest of the vietnam war?
sit-ins and occupations
one kind of political entity intended to obtain some kind of collective good and shape public policy
interest group
what are the six classifications of interest groups?
-public interest organizations
-single issue groups
-inter-governmental associations
-personality based interests

which interest group has trade associations, unions, and corporations
which trade organization is a clear slant
which interest group has counties that organize to get policy changes at federal level
inter-governmental associations
what interest groups have based interests?
has individuals who join to influence public policy
interest group
organizations that can act in a unitary manner to achieve policy goals
institutional interests
do institutional interests have collective action problems?
the u.s. congress is a prime target of...
interest groups
groups have many points of ---- to -----
access to congress
members of congress also have ----- to ----- to interest groups
incentives to listen
groups compete for influence throughout the policy process, and that no single group dominates the arenas of government
pluralist theory
there are interest groups, and they are influential, but that some interest groups are significantly more powerful than others
neo-pluralist argument
asserts that certain interest groupsmay capture agencies and influence policy with very little dissent
regulatory capture
policy subsystems that exert great control over policy in their area of expertise
iron triangles
consist of a bureaucratic regulatory agency, a legislative committee, and an interest group/corporation
iron triangles

making face to face contact with legislators or staff
grass roots organizations to influence legislator
the oldest and still most frequently used tool of grassroots pressure is the...
letter-writing campaigne
what are the consequences of interest group activities?
-lots of lawmakers know what is important
-aggregate interests
-provide policy analysis
-link between public and political elites
-have to be careful not to lose legitimacy
-influence public opinion

negative consequences:
-potential for gridlock
-lots of budgetary inefficiencies
-unequal outcomes

those who get their policies enacted ten to be better funded
unequal outcomes
the president is more immune from influences of group pressure than congress:
-rep of all
does the president have inherent advantage?
more than ------ percent belong to at least one interest group. on average each belongs to ---- groups
given directly to candidate
hard money
given to groups for non-candidate type activity
soft money
professor james wilson has identified three incentives:
professor james q wilson has identified three incentives:

specialized organizations that raise and spend campaign funds
political action committees(pac)
beer wholesalers
most contributions are to ----------, regardless of -----
conputer generated letters, faxes and other communications to people why might be sympathetic to an appeal for money or support
direct mail
from peaceful sit-ins and demonstrations to riots and even rebellion
direct action
some people seek to influence policy by
selecting cases to litigate
bigger, broader, and much looser connections of interest groups, politicians, bureaucrats, and policy experts active in a particular policy area
issue networks
one conclusion is that groups are most influential when they:
-act on low profile issues
-attempt to block action rather than originate it
-are unopposed by other groups or politicians
-have plentiful resources

means of communication that are technologically capable of reaching many people and are economically affordable to most
mass media
newspapers selling for a penny
penny press
what was the birth of the media in america?
the penny press
sometimes called yellow journalism
the most important modern trends in the newspaper industry are the ---------- of newspapers
decline in the number, and the independence
president roosevelt made effective use of the radio with his
fireside chats
probably the most important recent development in radio communications is the rapid increase in
talk shows
-- percent of all household have at least one --------- --- and with an average of ---- per household
televisino set

the industry was organized under three large networks:

was the first campaign to take advantage of television, producing simple commercials
dwight eisenhower
--------- ---------- continues to be the largest single source of information available to americans
network television
this is probably the best known example of what is generally described as the --- ------
cable television
new media
regulates the electronic media
the federal communications commission
regulations concerning what could be broadcast were upheld by
the supreme court
unlike print media, electronic media was constrained by
government can regulate who gets to put their views on the radio
forced stations to provide balanced political viewpoints to be expressed
fairness doctrine
when was the fairness doctrine repealed?
the dominant provider of information in american society
one researcher concluded that while media may not tell people what to think, they could tell people what to think about
agenda setting
agenda setting is also known as
the cnn affect
media may also be responsible for directing the public to think along certain lines such as evaluating a president based on a particular issue
one researcher concluded that the media are harder on ------ than ------
the fact that the media are ------ ---------- pulls them in a ---------- direction
business enterprises
a bias toward the negative in the media
selection bias
where reporters unanimously decide something is newsworthy and attack it like wolves tearing apart their prey
pack journalism
the primary process for nominating candidates was instituted in
--------------- are not nearly as important as in the earlier eras, and media coverage has -------- accordingly
the parties now treat the convention as huge
was established in 1987 to ensure that debates provide the best possible information to viewers and listeners
the commission on presidential debates
is the is the commission on presidential debates a nonprofit, nonpartisan corporation?
this established a rule that explicitly states that presidential candidates must have an average of at least -- percent support in ---- national polls in order to take part in the fall depates
non partisan commission

the first question the media raises about debates is...
who won?
the media pays more attention to ----- than to ------
the president
from the medias standpoint, what the government does well is ---- newsworthy than what government does badly

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