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bio meisosis


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copy deck
molecules protruding from the surface of cells/viruses which trigger an immune response
protein that attaches to antigens triggering macrophages to destroy that cell
unviversal donar
universal recipient
multiple alleles
more than two possible alleles in the abo blood type system
Linked genes
genes located on the same chromosome which tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
sex linked genes
genes located on the X chromosome
sinse the y chromosome is disheveled version of x chromosme, there are certain genes on the x that arent on the y
therefore there are certain traits tht men only have one copy of
1 copy of a gene instead of 2
autosomal genes
genes located on autosomes
individual that has an allele for a trait/disease but who does not express it in their phenotype
monohybrid cross
a breeding experiment between parents differeing in only a single characteristic
the likelihood that a specific event will occur
^genetics - trait or characteristic that an offspring will exhibit
law of segregation
two alleles segregate(split) during gamete formation
ex: nondisjuntion
law of independent assortment
alleles of different genes separate independently of one another (inheritance of one trait has no effect on the inheritance of another trait)
ex: crossing over occurs
4 reasons why peas are good to use
many of the traits have two distinct formns, reproduce quickly, short generation time, and mating easily controlled
gregor mendel
austiran monk that had a background in farming and science. used pea plants to study heredity, mathematical aproach to science, and 1st to develop rules that accuratley predict patterns of heredity
prophase 1
homologous pairs form and crossing over occurs
metaphase 1
homologous chromosomes line up along the center of the cell but the homologous pairs remain side by side
anaphase 1
homologous chromosomes split and move to opposite ends of the cell
telophase 1 and cytokinesis
chromosomes move to either end of the cell and the cytoplasm divides creating 2 haploid cells. each cell contains one pair of hte homologous pairs
prophase 2
nuclear envelope disolves and spindle forms
metaphase 2
chromosomes line up along the center of the cell like mitosis
anaphase 2
centromeres divide and sister chromatids which are now chromosomes split and move to opposite ends of the cell
telophase 2 and cytokinesis
cytoplasm divides and 4 different haploid cells are created
test corss
cross in which an individual whose phenotype is domoinant but whose genotype is not known is crossed with a homosygous recessive individual
somatic cells
body cells (not reproductive)46
sex cells (egg and sperm)23
binary fission
form of asexual reproducton that makes identical offspring
segment of dna that codes for a protein
structure found in the nucleus that contains one long strand of dna wrapped around proteins (forms as cell prepares to divide)
2 exact copies of DNA that make up each chrom.
point of attachment between 2 chromatids
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes similar in size shape and genetic information *one comes from mom and one comes from dad
2n=46 in humans -cell with 2 sets of chromosomes (somatic cells)
n=23 - cell with one set of chromosomes (gametes)
fertilized egg cell
fusion of 2 haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote
chromosomes not involved in determining sex (22 pairs)
sex chromosomes
chromosomes involved in deterning sex (1 pair-x and y chromosomes)
humans missing 1 of 46 chromosomes
humans with 3 copies of one chromosme
a photograph of chromsomes in a dividing cell that shows chromosomes arragned by size (helps to detect abnormalities)
each chromosome and its homologue separate when a sperm and egg are formed
when chromosomes fail to separate so a gamete gets 2 copies of a chromosome and not just one
piece of a chromosome breaks off
chromosome fragment attaches to homologous chromosome which will now have 2 copies of certain genes
chromsome piece reattaches to original chromosome but in reverse orientation
chromosome piece attaches itself to a nonhomologous chromosome
set of alleles that an individual has
physical appearance of a trait
a genotype when two alleles of a particular gene are the same (BB or bb)
a genotype when two alleles of a particular gene are different (Bb)
complete dominance
one alllele is completely expressed while the other may have no observable effect on the organisms appearance
a trait that is expressed (in the phenotype( when either one or two copies of the allele are pressetn in the genotype
a trait only expressed when both copies of allele are present in the genotype
incomplete dominance
neither allele is completely dominant so if an individual is heteroxygous for the trait, a blending of the trait results
both traits are dominant and expressed in the phenotype at the same time-both traits appear rather than blended together
moinogenic traits
physical traits determined by a single type of gene
polygenic traits w
when several genes influence a single trait
phenotypic gene
one gene influences more than one physical trait
environmental traits
many phenotype physical traits are not simpley influenced by genes but are the result of an interaction between genes and the enviornment
difference between meisosis and mitosis
2n->2n and 2n = mitosis
2n->n and n ->n n n n = meiosis

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