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European Studies 2nd Semester


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This placed absolute or unlimited power in the monarch or his advisors.
Divine Right
A political idea that a monarch receives his/her power directly from God and are responsible to God alone.
Philip II
-He became Spain's most powerful king.
-The Prudent King
El Escorial
-royal court
-art gallery
-tombs for spanish royalty.
Religious policies of Philip II
-Protestant minorities?
-Marranos-Jews converted to Christianity
-Moriscos-Muslims turned Christian
-Autos da fé-public ritual & execution
What event?
1569--Dutch--Philip II
Philip II tries to impose Catholicism on the Dutch. The Dutch revolt.
What event?
1581--Dutch--Philip II
The Dutch declare their independence.
With help of English "Sea Dogs" raided the Spanish Armada.
What event?
1586--English--Philip II
Philip II plans to attack England.
What event?
1568--England--Philip II
The Spanish Armada enter the English Channel, but is defeated via quicker ships, longer-range cannons, fireships.
Spanish Armada
A fleet of warships organized to carry out a mission.
1588 130 ships, 33,000 men.
What event marked the beginning of Spain's decline as a sea power?
Their defeat while attacking England in 1588.
Dates of the Tudor's Reign?
Edward VI?
Henry VIII's only son
Henry VII?
First Tudor monarch
How did Henry VII rebuild & Improve England?
-improved foreign trade
-improved collection of taxes
-avoided wars.
Henry VIII?
The most powerful Tudor monarch.
Mary I ?
Became monarch after Edward VI.
Who married Mary I?
Philip II of Spain
Who did the Council of Nobles assist?
Elizabeth I
Council of Nobles--part 1
-directed proclimations
-handled foreign trade
-supervised the admin of justice, regula- tions, prices and wages.
Council of Nobles--part 2
-enforcing the Queen's laws.
-on local level, unpaid position, usually well-respected member of community.
Justice of the Peace
-maintain the peace
-collection of taxes
-keep the government informed of local problems.
Austria 1740
Maria Theresa becomes
Empress of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
Empress of Austria in 1740
In 1718, why did Charles VI convene with the monarchs of Europe?
1. To promise not to divide the Hapsburg empire.
2. To accept a female successor to Austrian Throne.
Pragmatic Sanction
Royal decree having the force of law.
What were Maria Theresa's accomplishments?
-strengthen AUS central government
-reorganized the bureaucracy
-improved tax collection, built roads
-encouraged trade,exports w/Bohemia
-used gov't $$ to boost textiles/glass
Fredrick II?
Emperor of Prussia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
-what year?
-what did it end?
-why was it important?
-War of Austrian Succession.
-officially recognized Prussia as an important nation.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
-what were the two parts of the deal?
-Fredrick II could keep Silesia.
-Maria Theresa could keep her domain:
Austria, Hungary, & Bohemia.
What was the War of Austrian Succession?
-who was involved?
-how was it started & ended?
-Fredrick II/Prussia invaded AUS & took province of Silesia from Maria Theresa.
-Ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 after 7 years.
-UK-vs-France for New World land
-Prussia-vs-Austria & rest of nations
-Ended w/ Treaty of Paris
After the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle,
what were the countries' alliances?

Then, Maria Threresa changed sides to?
UK, Dutch, Austria-vs-France, Spain, Russia.
Maria Theresa switched from UK to France.
Which war concluded with Treaty of Paris?
What were the results from the
Treaty of Paris?
-France gave to Great Britain:
- most of Canada
-land east of Mississippi
-Britain became leading power in India.
The most powerful Bourbon monarch?
Louis XVI
Jacque Bossuet
He was the leading church official in France during the 1600's.
French Subjects rights?
-no right to revolt against the crown,
-even if the king is unjust.
-the king is accountable only to God.
The palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Louis XIV's Minister of Finance
Marquis de Louvois
Louis XIV's Minister of War
In 1685, what steps did Louis XIV take against the Huguenots?
-Repealed the Edict of Nantes.
-Protestants/Hugue's stop their religion.
-Children had to become Catholics.
-200,000 go to UK, Dutch, & colonies.
Charles II
-King of Spain, without an heir.
-Died 1700.
-Euro powers want to divide Spain.
Philip V, aka Philip of Anjou
-Louis XIV's grandson
-became king of Spain after Charles II left no heir,
-keeping the empire undivided.
War of the Spanish Succession
-Begins when Philip V crowned king of Spain.
-UK, Dutch, AUS-vs-France & Spain
The Treaty of Utrecht
-UK & Dutch agreed as long as France & Spain never united under one crown.
-UK gained trade w/ Spanish colonies.
-France gave UK: Nova Scotia & Newfoundland
-Financially ruined France.
Balance of Power
In international affairs, each nation helps keep peace by maintaining power that is equal to its rivals. So, one nation cannot overpower another nation.
The Third Balancing Nation
Re: balance of power, if one nation gets more powerful than the other, a third power will support the second nation.
England supported Spain against France.
Miguel de Cervantes
Wrote "Don Quixote."
Sea Dogs
English people who attacked ships and forts around the world.
Sir Frances Drake
The king of the Sea Dogs
Mary, Queen of Scots
Former Catholic queen of Scotland.
Fled to England, was beheaded by Elizabeth. He Protestant son, James VI became king of the United Kingdom.
Russian king or emperor.
In 1500's, Ivan IV's secret police.
The Russian nobles.
Many were traitorous to Ivan IV
and were stripped of their lands.
Michael Romanov
17-year-old successor to throne
after Ivan IV.
First of the Romanov czar reign.
-Warrior pioneers
-from Ukraine
-self-governing villages.
The man who brought Europe to Russia.
7' tall
St. Petersburg
The city built by Peter-the-Great.
Vitas Bering
Danish explorer who gave claimed the Bering Strait (between Siberia and Alaska)for Russia.
Holy Synod
A council of bishops responsible to
the government of Peter-the-Great.
The new class of nobles were given
land in exchange for government
service, starting at age 15.
Peasant laborers who worked the
estates and were bound to the land.

The bottom of the pecking order. (fiefs)
Catherine II
"Catherine-the-Great", 1762.
Almost freed serfs, before an uprising. Expanded borders.
The last absolute monarch.
Henry IV
Rebuilt France.-restored crown's treasury
-repaired roads & bridges.
-supported trade & industry
-tried to restore discipline to the military,
-tried to bring order to gov't bureaucr
1598 Edict of Nantes --allowances:
It allowed Protestant worship to
continue in areas where the Protestants were a majority. Protestants &
Catholics have same civil rights.
Barred (according to the Edict of Nantes:
Protestant worship in Paris or
other Catholic strongholds.
French Protestants
Who was Cardinal Richelieu?
Was given complete control of the French government by Louis VII.
What happened to Henry IV?
Who succeeded him to the throne?
He was assassinated.
His 9-year-old son, Louis VIII took the throne.
What did Cardinal Richelieu do to the nobles?
-took away power from the nobles.
-striped nobles of local functions
-destroyed their castles.
What powers did the nobles have before Richelieu?
-collected taxes
-administered justice
-appointed local officials
-made alliances with foreign government
The special agents of the crown to whom Richelieu gave authority in local government affairs--while the nobles only retained their social positions.
Radical Huguenots revolt.
Cardinal Richelieu takes away Huguenots' rights to independent towns, but they get to keep their religious freedom.

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