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Story of the Romans


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clever queen from Ancient Carthage
Rhea Sylvia
mother of Romulus and Remus
A man from Troy who escaped with his family and searched for a new
land in which to settle.
won over his brother, “Rome” from his name/ built Rome. Also killed his brother
Roman traitor who was killed when she " sold" Rome to the Sabines for gold trinkets
Numa Pompilius
a Sabine, king of Rome when Romulus was gone, Good king
Father of Aeneas
god of the beginning and the end
This kingdom was Rome's enemy until the cries of thier wives and daughters caused them to unite
The oldest and wisest men whom Romulus appointed to advise him and later made rules for the people
Horatius Horatii
The victor of the battle against the Curiatii. He killed his
sister when she greeted him with tears after he was victorious in killing
her lover.
Tullus Hostilius
a patrician, third king of Rome, formed assembly of senators, unhealthful conditions in Rome resulted in plague which killed him
Ancus Martius
Elected king, grandson of Numa Pompillius-wise and good-built long lasting prison-built harbor at Osita and a straight road leading to it. Many people came to settle in Rome at this time including a Greek named Tarquin, who became “friend” and advisor to this king
Tarquin (Lucius Tarquinius Priscus)
-started out as guardian of Ancus Marius’ sons but grabbed rule for himself
-although got crown wrongfully did much to improve city-built a great sewer very carefully + well
-improved the Forum(marketplace near city center with platform for speeches
-built a huge open-air circus
-used Lictors with Fasces (where our term Fascist comes from)
-female slave had son, this king's wife saw flame over her slave's son's head, adopted him +named him Servius Tullius, grew up in household
-sons of Ancus Martius concerned so hired assassins to kill this King
-this King’s wife propped up dead king so that Servius Tullius could get to the throne
Servius Tullius
-wise ruler, helped lower classes of Rome-instituted taking a census every 5 years
-divided army into groups of 100 men (Centuries)
-gradually the Centuries became the Comita Curiata assembly
-made peace treaty with the Latins and built temple to Diania on the Aventine to honor the treaty, Latins now acknowledged Rome as head of Latium
-his evil daughter married Tarquin’s son, an evil man also named Tarquin who was later called Tarquin the Proud
Tarquin the Proud(Taquinius Superbus)
-obtained throne through murder of Servius Tulllius-ruled without any authority from people or senate, tyrant
-last king of Rome
Cumaean Sibyl
a prophetess that sold 3 volumes for the price of 9 that prophesied what was going to happen to Rome
town at the mouth of the Tiber
men who walked with Tarquin carring an ax in the middle of a bundle of rods
to remind the people that they would be punished for wrong doings
-patriotic + severe
-assassinated Julius Caesar
-defeated by forces of Antony + Octavius at Phillipi
Castor and Pollux
2 twin gods that were believed to have helped in the war of the Romans against Tarquin’s army, the Romans then built a temple for the 2 gods.
Roman Triumph
a parade given to a victorious general when he returned to Rome, people/generals who had over taken a province or won a war were set in great honor. Given a great procession,wore very fancy clothes and were said to be equal to the gods on that day.
a one eyed soldier who kept the entire Clusium army at
bay while the Romans were cutting apart the bridge and so became a hero
a brave Roman who burned his own hand by sticking it in the fire when he was sentenced to die because he had tried to kill Porsena but was released because of his
brave act
A Roman who was exiled after not giving wheat to the Plebians. He then charged back with an army to conquer Rome, though he was stopped by his mother saying “ My son, thou shalt enter Rome only over my dead body."
a retired soldier, who was content as a farmer. Romans needed a good leader for their army to resist the AEquians. He agreed to be dictator for as long as they needed. he won the battle for them, gladly received a triumph, Then went back to farming.
wrongfully exiled Roman who returned to save Rome from the Gauls
A brave Greek general who fought against Rome and wanted to be like Alexander the Great. He brought his elephants to fight and won some battles, but lost a lot of his army. Admired the Romans and said, "Ah, how easily I could conquer the world , had I the Romans for soldiers, or if they had me for king!"
The Gauls
The city of Rome was burned and ransacked when this group invaded. Unfortunately, many of the early records of Rome were burnt.
Awarded the first naval Roman triumph for his defeat of the Carthagian fleet. Rome had quickly built the ships he used based on a Carthaginian galley that had wrecked on their shores.
First Punic War
The 15 year war between Rome and Carthage which was fought in Africa and on the sea. Carthage won a victory under the Greek Xanthippus, but his thank you was a drowning. Carthaginian Regulus was cruelly murdered when his negotiations didn't result in the end of the war.
A Carthaginian general skilled in strategy and leadership who hated Rome even more than he loved his country. Led his
army into Italy over the Alps and almost brought about the destruction of Rome
A Roman general whose strategy was to fight Hannibal indirectly through skirmishes and cutting off his supply lines and avoided open battle. For his strategy he was dismissed, and then when open battle failed miserably against Hanibal, Fabius was recalled.
A great inventor from Syracuse who was accidently killed by the Romans. "Give me a long enough lever and a spot wheron to rest it, and I will lift the world."
Defeated Hannibal at Zama, ending the 2nd Punic War. Had a triumph procession and then was accused of taking possession of gold. He choose to withdrawn from the ungrateful Romans for the rest of his life.
Third Punic War
A lengthy seige of Carthage that resulted in the city being completly destroyed, never to rise again
a Roman official elected to speak for the needs of the poor
Tiberius Gracchus
tribune who was murdered in the senate for his attempt at land reform to help the poor
Caius Gracchus
brother of Tiberius who attempted to continue his brother's reforms to help the poor and was also killed, ushering in a period of Roman lawlessness
a cruel king of Numidia who killed his relatives to gain land and bribed Roman senators. He feigned repentence and then declared war against Rome but was defeated and died in prison.
-son of poor parents who worked his way up to position of consul
-conqueror of Jugurtha
-defeated the Teutons and the Cimbri in a battle
-became haughty, Sulla's enemy
-with Cinna tried to kill his enemies as soon as he was consul and died soon after
-rival of Marius
-killed enemies including 8,000 soldiers serving Rome under Marius
-the power wars between this man in Marius resulted in the deaths of 150,000 Romans
-friend of Marius who took refuge in Spain after Marius/Sulla wars
-supported by Spaniards in part due to presence of white doe
-raised sons of Spanish nobles in Roman style
-paranoid, killed Spanish charges when Roman army sent out to conquer him
-murdered by Perperna, one of his own men
led 100,000 gladiators/slaves to brink of freedom, defeated by Crassus and Pompey, when against his wishes, his army turned back to Rome for vengence and booty
-brilliant general with knack of arriving just in time to snatch up the victory
-defeated pirates and subdued Syria, Phoenicia, and Judea and also entered Jerusalem, defiling Holy of Holies
-part of 1st triumvirate
-opposed Caesar and lost at the battle of Pharsalia
-killed in Egypt when fleeing for protection
-headed conspiracy to murder consuls + loot Rome
-his plot discovered and he and his conspirators were killed
-famous orator
-discovered plot of Cataline + gave famous speech
-formed powerful triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Crassus, then banished under old law, then recalled
Julius Caesar
-subdued the country of Gaul
-invaded Britain
-under orders of Pompey, called back to Rome as private citizen, but disobeyed order and came back across with the Rubicon with arms and army
-easily conquered Spain
-headed to Greece to meet Pompey(joined by Cicero+Brutus+troops) in battle, victorious
-made Cleopatra queen of Egypt
-dictator of Rome 10 years, made better laws
-murdered in senate by Brutus, Cassius +others who feared for the Republic
2nd Triumvurate
-made up of Mark Antony, Lepidus, + Octavius
-killed 2,000 Romans via proscription lists, including Cicero
Mark Antony
-good general, bad morals
-fell for Cleopatra, and did not honor his wife and his duty to Rome
-defeated by Octavius at Battle of Actium
-committed suicide
-nephew and heir of Julius Caesar
-Roman Empire begins with his rule as Imperator(Emperor)
-period of peace and building during his reign
-also called Caesar Augustus
-German leader who killed the general(Varus) along with the trrops that Augustus sent to quell the Germanic uprising
-Stepson and successor to Augustus
-Wicked and cruel
-Orders the deaths of many: Germanicus, Sejanus(a cruel man who he allowed to rule in his stead), and a multitude of people he thought or imagined to be against him
-Smothered to death
-nephew of Augustus, whom Augustus had Tiberius adopt
-sent to dangerous German posts by Tiberius, who wished him dead
-avenged the deaths of Varus and his army
-then sent to fight the Parthians where he was poinsoned on orders from Tiberius
-son of Germanicus, but unfortunately, was not like him morally
-curel, vain, mentally
-murdered by guards after a reign as emperor for 3 years
-his name means "little boots"
-uncle of Caligula who was made emperor when found hiding behind curtains when Caligula was murdered
-tried to govern fairly but was not mentally strong
-Messalina was his 1st evil wife, Agrippina his 2nd
-Agrippina positioned her son, Nero, ahead of the rightful heir to the throne and had Claudius poisoned
-early act of reign was to send his mother(Agrippina) away from the court
-poisoned his stepbrother, Britannicus, who was son of Claudius and rightful heir to the throne
-after a failed attempt with a ship built to fall apart, had his mother murdered
-then his reign became unspeakably evil, and many, including Christians, were cruelly killed
-took his own life as Galba,the general elected by Roman forces in Spain, advanced to take over
Chritian Martyrs
faithful to their Lord Jesus, they were tortured and killed by Nero
Siege of Jerusalem
-began by Vespasian, finished by his son, Titus
-sadly, 1,000,000 Jewish people were killed and 100,000 taken as captives of war; the city was completely destroyed
- army General who returned from the siege of Rome to defeat the gluttonous Vitellius and replace him as emperor.
-began the building of the famous Roman Coliseum
-reigned ten years and was beloved by his subjects
-son of Vespasian, who took over destroying Jerusalem when his father returned to Rome
-ruled with integrity, tried to help others
-Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius during his 2 year reign
-brother of Titus
-a cruel, vain emperor who recalled his best general due to jealously
-gave many circuses and games for the entertainment of the people
-Christians were persecuted during his reign and John was exiled to Patmos where he wrote Revelation
-appointed by Emperor Nerva, who proceeded him, but had a short reign due to age
-provided for storage of wheat with sale at reasonable prices
-ruled with integrity, remember as “Father of his Country”
-a skilled general: had subdued Germans prior to reign, defeated Dacians and Parthians during his reign
-persecuted Christians severely, but otherwise had a very honorable reign
-cousin of Trajan, who had fought with him in many campaigns
-concentrated on good government, rather than enlarging empire
-noted for building: “Hadrian’s Wall” in Great Britain, Carthage rebuild, considered rebuilding Jerusalem but instead a war erupted killing many including 500,000 Jews
-Initially was against Christians, but later wanted to have Christ placed among the Roman gods, and then reversed himself again with another wave a persecution following
Antonius Pius
-ruled with kindness and gentleness
-although not a Christian, looked favorably upon Christians and ended the persecution
Marcus Aurelius
-followed the philosophy of the Stoics
-valued a virtuous life although not a Christian
-much unrest during reign: Britain, Germany, Parthia
-made the unworthy Verus(fought Parthians) his associate ruler
-plague came with soldiers returning from Parthians, Christians blamed resulting in persecution which was later terminated after troops led by Arcus Aurelius were saved by a thunderstorm in battle
-son of Marcus Aurelius, cruel and vain, did nothing helpful for empire
-in a replay like Domitian, kept list of future victims on tablet, discovered by wife who saw her own name got help with murdering him
-divided the Roman Empire into four parts
-severe persecution of Christians during his reign
-retired to life of solitude growing vegetables and the empire was then divided into two parts
-son of the ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire
-claim to throne disputed, came to Rome with army, saw cross in sky, became Christian
-1st Christian Emperor; ended crucifixions and gladiator games
-seat of government changed to Byzantium, which was renamed Constaninople
-cousin of Constantine who was put in charge of Gaul
-gave up Christianity and followed Greek philosophy, paganism, and alchemy
-became emperor after the son of Constantine died
-closed Christian churches +schools, ordered soldiers to give up Christianity, encouraged worship of pagan gods
Valens and Valentintinian
-the empire was divided again under this pair of brother emperors -Bible was translated into the language of the Goths, converting some of the Goths who had been allowed to settle in Thrace
- Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, who was so successful as a general and just that he made peace with the Goths
-Empire was united and “the Great” was added after his name
-induced his subjects to give up all pagan gods except for Victory
-reproved by St. Ambrose for his murder of all inhabitants of hessalonica
-King of the Goths
-led the Goths into Greece
-eventually led the Goths to the gates of Rome and began a siege, promised a bribe if he would leave, when money not paid came back again and plundered the city of Rome
-continued to plunder throughout southern Italy and died as he was crossing to Sicily
-brother of Alaric, married sister of the Roman Emperor Honorius, and made a treaty with Rome
-led the Goth out of Italy and into Spain where he founded the Kingdom of the Visigoths
-his son, Valentinian became Western Roman Emperor
Atittla the Hun
- king of the group which seized the lands once occupied by the Goths
-Rome paid them to keep out of the empire
-Ravaged the land and peoples all the way to France and headed to Italy
-Pope Leo met him and persuaded him to spare Rome
-died on his wedding night, possibly at the hand of his new wife, a Gothic princess
Romulus Augustulus
-last Roman Emperor
-taken from the throne by a German tribe leader named Odoacer
-Roman Empire ends = 476 A.D.

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