This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Makara's Definitions


undefined, object
copy deck
the ancient Egyptian name for the moon, representing hte god Thoth
the name for the sacred bull at Erment (Hermonthis), which was originaly dedicated to the god Mont. In time this animal played a part in the cult celebrations of other deities
the name given to the human heart in religious documents.
Abbott Papyrus
a Ramessid document dating to the 20th century (1160 bc). In it is an account of the investigation of serious grave robberies during that era. High-ranking officials were involved in the investigation, which was dramatic and prolonged, and a trial ensued.
region of the Faiyum near Hawara where ruling families of the local inhabitants maintained estates and influence.
Abtu (Greek: Abydos)
Also called Busiris, it was the seat of worship of god Osiris. It means "the house of Osiris". According to Egyptian tradition, this is where the sun entered the underworld, after his daily journey. The gap in the mountain where he entered was called "peq." This tradition was changed a little when, in the 12th dynasty, the souls of the dead were said to enter into the afterlife here.
ancient Egyptian name for Elephantine Island at Aswan
Abu Ghurob
a site at the edge of the desert near Giza where Izi (Neuserre') built his sun temple. (2400 bc)
Abu Simbel
south of Aswan near the Secound Cataract of the Nile, of the temple of Ramessess II of the 19th Dynasty. Shrine was dedicated to the gods AMon and Re'-Horakthy, and to the memory of Ramesses himself. A secound rock-hewn temple on the site was erected in honor of hte goddess Hathor. Colossal statues at this shrine include one of Queen Nefertari. Because the flood level of the Nile was altered by the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the temples of AbuSimble were removed from the original site and rebuilt on higher level in 1968.
a city north of Dendera, capital of the Eight Nome called the Thinite nome. Was considered the greatest of all cemeteries and the home of the god Osiris. Of all the royal monuments at Abydos, that of Seti I of the 19th dynasty is the largest. There is also a mortuary complex of Queen Tetisheri, grandmother of Ahmose. Ahmose was the founder of the 18th dynasty. Abydos was a large city due to the fact that it was the seat of the Osiris cult.
site located just south of the Faiyum, named Tinha in modern times. It was used a sa mecropolis by the powerful Nomarchs of the 5th Dynasty.
a head covering shown on the goddesses Isis and Selket and on one statue of Tutankhamun. It resembled the Nemes, the royal headdress, but was not stripped and lacked the frong palnels.
the Greek word for Egypt.
ancient Egyptian god in the form of a lion. It guarded the passage of the god Ra on his solar bark. Aker, guarded both the beginning and the end of the day.
The form in which the deceased exists in the afterlife; unchangeable and immortal. The only way to "kill" the akh was to forget his/her name in the living world.
Season of inundation in the ancient calender. The rising of Sirius, the dog star, signaled the beginning of the annual flooding of the Nile. Was also the name of the horizon where the sun emerged and set. It embodied the idea of both sunrise and sunset. During the New Kingdom, Harmakhet was given the distinction of being the god of the rising and setting of the sun. Similar to the mountain symbols with a solar disk in the center (the two peaks of the Djew).
The name given to the historical time period under the rule of Akhenaten/Amenophis IV. This was the time period when Akhenaten changed the Egyptian religion to only one god, the Aten, the location of Egypt's capital and the art and culture of Egypt in general.
The Underworld. Originally the place where the sun set, this name was later applied to the West Bank of the Nile where the Egyptians built their tombs.
ancient Egyptian name for the scepter in the form of a club or mace that was used as a royal insignia in most eras. Dates back to the early period of Egypt when wariors from the south invaded the Delta and subdued the Bee King's armies and unified the nation.
Amon's Bark
a vessel called Userhetamon, or the "Mighty of Brow Is Amon," a floating temple for the god AMon at Thebes. The bark was supposedly a gift of 'Ahmose I in thanks for sucessful military campaigns. On the Feast of Opet the Bark of Amon was moved with great ceremony from Karnak to Luxor and back. It was covered in gold from teh waterline up and was filled with cabins, obelisks, niches and elaborate adornments.
Amon's Wives
a titled assumed by high-ranking royal women who took part in religious ceremonies of the god at Karnak and Luxor during the New Kingdom. Queens Ahhotep and 'Ahmose-Nefretiri, in the reign of 'Ahmose I were the first such women to assume the role, serving as patronesses for festivals and cultic rites.
Charms worn like jewelry during life, and were included within the mummy wrappings for the afterlife. They were often in the form of gods' sacred animals or hieroglyphs. They were made of precious stones or faience.
A symbol of life, resembling a looped cross. It was later adapted by Coptic Christians as their cross. Widely used as an amulet.
ancient name for the city of Memphis. Means "Life of the Two Lands." In the 6th Dynasty, Pharaoh Pepi I changed it to Memphis.
Water and Lust
A Greek word meaning "man-shaped." The term was used for coffins made in the shape of a human.
ancient Egyptian term for the dawning of a god or the coronation and/or anniversary of a king.
A name for the land of the dead.
Assiut (Lykopolis or Lyconpolis)
was the center of the 13th Nome of Upper Egypt, located south of Hermopolis on the eastern side of the Nile. It was dedicated to the god Wepwawet, the wolf deity. The city was the center of the caravan route from the Khargah Oasis and the lands below the First Cataract.
named Sunnu by the Egyptians and Syene by the Greeks. Located at the First Cataract of the Nile. Area was famous for its red granite. Was also provincial administrative headquarters for the territories below the cataract and the viceroys of Nubia were stationed on the Elephantine Island there. Settlement on the island predates that at Aswan. The district honored the ram god Khnum and his consorts, Satet and Anuket. The god Hapi was also supposed to have lived in a cave in the area.
name for funerary offerings to the deceased.
name for the cbra in striking position represented on the crowns of the kings
Avaris (Greek for Hut-waret)
city located in the eastern Delta, northeast of Bubastis, the site of Per-Ramesses, the residence of the 19th dynasty rulers. Avaris was constructed/adapted by the Hyksos, who added walls, causeways and various devices to protect the inhabitants against sieges and missile attacks. Kamose of the 17th dynasty tried to reach Avaris with his sothern army but the task fell to his brother, 'Ahmose I of the 18th Dynasty.
name for the crook, the royal symbol of the kings adopted fromt eh god Osiris and the ancient sheperd diety Andjeti. The crook denoted the pharoh's role as the guardian of the people of hte Nile.
Ax of Ahhotep
a New Kingdom military emblem that was discovered in the tomb of Queen Ahhotep, the mother of 'Ahmose I. Made of gold, the ax signified the emblem of honor in military events.
One's personality. It is associated with divinity and power and similar to the ka. The ba left the body at the moment of death. It had the ability to take on different forms, as such the gods had many bas. The ba of the deceased is able to move freely between the underworld and the earth.
ba house
small house like container, fashioned out of pottery in most eras and placed in the tombs of commoners who could not afford the elaborate offering chapels of the larger tombs.
Ba'eb Djet
ancient Egyptian name for the sacred ram of Mendes. Depicted with elaborate horns surmounted by the uraeus, the animal was carefully sought and tested for signs of its fitness to serve as the manifestation of Ra, Osiris and Ptah.
Baharia Oasis
located in the Libyan Desert, soutwest of Heracleopolis, it was considered one of the most important of the Oases. Kamose of the 17th dynasty rested at this oasis with his troops.
Bahr Libeini
a waterway through Memphis dating to the Early Dynastic Period. Legend stated that Aha altered the course of the Nile in order to reclaim teh region of MEmphis as the site of Egypt's capital.
Bahr Yusef
a natural canal connecting the Nile to the Faiyum between Hermopolis and Meir.
The mythical mountain from which the sun rose and the region of the eastern horizon. With Manu, it held up the sky. They, Manu and Bakhu, were guarded by Aker.
A boat in which the gods sailed. The barque of Ra carried a host of deities across the sky each day.
Barque Shrine
Model barques were kept in these shrines in temples. These model barques were used to carry deities out of the temples in festival processions.
Batn el-Hagar
called the "Belly of Stones" by the local inhabitants, a site near the Secound Cataract. The "Belly of Stones" is a desolate region extending for more then 100 miles, filled with white water rapids and surrounded by harsh wastelands.
an instrument used by the anicent Egyptians for surveying Nile sites and for architectural planning.
Bedwi (Bedway)
an term for the Bedouin or Asiatic, nomad tribes of the souther Sinai on Egypt's eastern border. The Bedwi tried to hold their ground against the many expeditions sent out in the early eras of the nation.
called heneket, a popular drink.
ancient insignia kept in the shrine of the god Ra at Heilopolis and incorporated the pyramid symbol with the rays of hte sun. This sign evoked the concept of resurrection. Ra was associated with the benben in his cultic rites.
phoenix-like bird of legends, sheltered in the Persea Tree at Heliopolis.
Bentresh Stela
dating to 300bc, relating a stroy concerning the reign of Ramessess II at Thebes. THe story detailes the arrival of the Princess of Bekhtan (land of the Hittites). She was given to Ramesses as a wife and her name is listed as Bentresh, although she was probably Ma'at Hornefrure. When she arrived, she is found to be possessed by a demon, but is so lovely the king makes an effort to free her fo the evil spell. Finaly, when all else fails, an image of the god Khons is brought into her presense and the demon flees. The story appears to have been a commeorative fancy conerning the marriage of Ramesses II to a Hittite princess during his reign.
Biban el Harim
aka Biban el Sultanat, modern name for Valley of the Queens
Birth House
Small temples which were attached to the main temples of the Late and Greco-Roman Periods. These temples are where the god of the main temple was born, except if the main temple was dedicated to a goddess, then it was where she bore her children.
Bitter Lakes
a region streching from the Nile to the Wadi Tumilat in the Egyptian Delta.
board games
recreation popular in all historical periods of Egypt. The people delighted in a variety of table games. Faience and ivory inlaid boxes of the game senet have been discovered in tombs. Senet and the game called Tjau were possibly of Asiatic origin. Robbers, another game, was played with two sets of five or more pieces. Serpent was another popular games, played on a circular board with small balls inscribed with the names of early Egyptian kings. Jackals and Hounds, one of the most popular, used wands to determine moves.
Book of the Dead
A collection of magic spells and formulas that began to appear in Egyptian tombs around 1600 BC. It was intended to be spoken by the deceased during their journey into the Underworld and thus enabled the deceased to overcome obstacles in the afterlife. This was done by teaching passwords that allowed the deceased to turn into mythical creatures and navigate around hazards, while simultaneously granting the help and protection of the gods, and proclaiming the deceased's identity with the gods. The texts were a continuation of the Pyramid and Coffin Texts. There are about 200 known spells, which can vary from copy to copy.
one of the four great salt lakes in the Delta
a central Delta town originaly dalled Djedu, the Per-Usire, House of Osiris. Busiris was originaly dedicated to the local vegetation god, Andjeti. The god Sobek and Osiris were honored in that town. It never became politicaly powerful, burt remained an important shrine center for Osiris
the name given to the fine linen products developed in certain regions.
Canal of Sehel
a passage that dates to the 6th dynasty (2300 bc) dug alongside the first Cataract of the Nile at the island of Sehel in order to allow the Egyptians easy access to the territories below.
Canopic Jars
The four jars used to store the preserved internal organs of the deceased. Each jar is representative of one of the four sons of Horus. The word comes from the Greek word Canopus who was a demigod venerated in the form of a human headed jar.
Papyrus or linen soaked in plaster and shaped around a body. Used for mummy masks and coffins.
A elongated oval with a horizontal bar at the bottom. Generally a king or a god's name was written within. It is believed to act as a protector of the king's name, seeing that it is never forgotten. The sign represents a loop of rope that is never ending.
the white water regions of the Nile River. Six total, they extended from Aswan to just above Khartoum. First Cataract, at Aswan ,served as the natural barrier along the southern border of Egypt
From the Greek word meaning "empty tomb." This was a tomb built for ceremonial purposes and never intended to be used.
the sacred floating island in the western Delta near Buto that figures in the lovely legend concerning the goddess Isis and her infant son Horus. This is where Isis retired to give birth to the child.
Cippus of Horus
a form of Stela popular in the late and Ptolemaic periods, featuring Harpokrates (Horus as a child) standing on a crocodile and holding scorpions and other dangerous creatures. Magical texts accompanied the image to provide protection against the beings displayed. Water was poured over the Cippus and by drinking the water, a person was thought to be rendered invulnerable.
the surgical removal of all or part of the male prepuce, practiced by the Egyptians as part of their traditional methods of hygiene. Male circumcision was not performed at birth but during adolescence.
Coffin Texts
Texts written inside coffins of the Middle Kingdom which were intended to direct the souls of the dead past the dangers and perils on the journey through the afterlife. Over 1,000 spells are known.
A more then life-size statue, normally of kings but were could also be of gods and private individuals. These statues usually flanked the gates or pylons of temples. Believed to act as intermediaries between men and the gods.
the king, as the living god of hte land, had the right to aks his people to assume staggering burdens of labor. This prerogative of the Egyptian kings has been viewed as both a form of slavery and as aunique method of civic responsibility. The corvee was nto slavery, although slavery was introduced in the Middle Kingdom.
the women of Egypt followed certain styles and trends in their toilette. From earliest times, they employed materials to brighten or color their faces. They were particularly concered with mascara, which was used to recreate the sacred Eye of Ra symbol on their own eyes, a religious and fashion statement.
cult centers:
the Egyptian had sites wehre gods were honored with special rites or ceremonies and where temples were erected totheir devotion. Each town had its own particular deity, but these were centers of the major gods
site named el-Qusiya in modern times. Was themain city of the 14th nome of Upper Egypt, located just south of Amarna. Was at one time the southern boundary of the Hykosos control.
daily royal rites
ceremonies of the divine cult that were listed on the temple walls at Abydos and recounted in papyri. They were dedicated to the god Amon and date from the New Kingdom era. The deity was offered unguents, wine, incense and articles of fine clothing and jewelry at the start of the service. Lavish care was taken of the statues of Amon in the temple, reserved in sanctuaries and hidden. Only the highest-ranking priests and members of the royal family could enter the sealed chambers of the god to perform the morning greetings, the washing rituals and clothing ceremonies. Each priest knew that he was acting solely as a substitute for the king.
a necropolis area on the LIbyan Plateau near Memphis, popular with early dynastic families of anicent Egypt. Two of Snofru's 4th dynasty (2575-2551 bc) pyramids were errected there)
a site at the Third Cataract of the Nile where twin brick fortresses were erected in the Old Kingdom period.
Deir el-Bahri
called Djeseru-Djeseru by the ancient Egyptians, which means "Holy of Holies." The modern name means "Monastery of the North" in Arabic. Mentuhotpe II (2061-2010 bc) of the 11th dynasty built his mortuary complex here. His temple was pyramidal in design, his royal female companions were buried at the rear of the complex in elaborate tombs.
Deir el-Ballas
a site north of Thebes where the palace complex of the 17th dynasty was discovered. It was used by Ta'o I and Kamose before the kings of the 18th dynasty abandoned the site.
Deir Durunka
a site south of Assiut where tombs of nomarchs fromt eh 19th dynasty were discovered.
called Iunet or Tantere by the Egyptians, was the capital of the 6th Nome of Upper Egypt, south of Abydos. It was the cultic complex for the goddess Hathor.
site north of Abu Simbel of rock-carved temple dating to the reign of Ramesses II. Dedicated to the god Ra-Harakhte.
The red crown; part of the Double Crown of Egypt. This was the crown that represented Lower Egypt (northern). Also the ancient name meaning Red Lands, refering to the desrt wastes surrounding the narrow, fertile strip of the Nile.
Divine Adoratirice
Chief priestess of Amun in Thebes, an office known from the New Kingdom through the Late Period. The office was a important tool of political control.
Divine Companions
a group of Egyptian divinities who were considered protectors of the temples and throne. They were four in number but each had 14 attendants/spiritual aids.
name for the sacred perch or reed that was associated with the creation tales. The reed, split in two at the moment of creation, rose out of the chaos waters to serve the emerging deity.
Djed Column
Symbol of stability. It was believed that the djed is personification of a human backbone. It represents strength and stability. Originally associated with the creation god Ptah, who was called the "Noble Djed." When the Osiris cults took hold it's definition was known as the backbone of Osiris. A djed column is often painted on the bottom of coffins, where the backbone of the deceased would lay. This identified the person with the king of the underworld, Osiris. It also acts as a sign of stability for the deceased's journey into the afterlife.
It means "mountain." The Egyptians believed that there was a cosmic mountain range that held up the heavens. This mountain range had two peaks, the eastern peak was called Bakhu and the western peak was Manu. On these peaks, heaven rested. Each peak of this mountain chain was guarded by a Aker. The mountain was a symbol of the tomb and the afterlife, most likely because most tombs were located in the mountainous land that bordered the Nile valley. Occasionally Anubis was said to be the guardian of the tomb. This was because he was referred to as "He who is upon his mountain." Occasionally Hathor takes on the attributes of a deity of the afterlife, when this happens she is called "Mistress of the Necropolis," and is rendered as the head of a cow protruding from a mountainside.
A straight, paved avenue flanked by sphinxes.
The land of the dead. It lies under the earth and is entered through the western horizon.
a city located north of Aswan in Upper Egypt, called Behdet by the ancients. Was the capital of the 2nd nome of Upper Egypt and the cult center of Horus-falcon worship. City was called the "Exaltation of Horus" in some eras.
an important salt lake in Egypt's Delta.
a metal popular in the New Kingdom, although was used earlier. IT was a naturally occuring combination of gold and silver. Was fashioned into the war helmets of hte kigns and was also used to top some pyramids and oblisks. It was called tjam, or white gold, the greeks called it electrum.
A group of 9 deities that are associated with a major cult center. The best known is the great Ennead of Heliopolis, which consists of Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys.
Epagomenal Dyas
the 5 days at the end of the ancient calendar that were used to commenorate the birthdays of the gods with huge festivals and ceremonies. The Days were added to the calendar by Imhotep, the vizier of Djoser of the 3rd Dynasty. He used the additional time to correct the calendar. THey birthdays celebrated on these days were, in order: Osiris, Horus, Set (Seth), Isis, Nephthys.
Erment (Armant)
called Iun-Mut in Egyptian and Hermonthis in Greek, a site south of Thebes. Was once the chief town of the 4th nome of Upper Egypt but was replaced byt Thebes. The god Mont had a cult center there and remains of an 11th dynasty palace was discovered there. A temple built by Queen-Pharaoh Hatshepsut and restored by Tuthmosis III is also there.
a clause in the Hittitie-Egypt Alliance in the rule of Ramesses II. It provided that persons of rank who attempted to flee their goverment to escape punishment would be returned.
'Eye of Ra'
Usually a goddess - Bastet, Sekhmet, Tefnut - who is used as a tool for Ra's revenge/punishment
A glazed material with a base of either carved soapstone or molded clay. It is overlaid green or blue colored glass.
the region called Ta-she (Pa-yuum, Pa-yom), meaning the Land of Lakes. It is a natural depression extending along the western side of the Nile, roughly 65 miles south of Cairo. It was settled in Paleolithic times. The region was fed by the Bahr Yusef, an Arabic name meaning "Joseph's River" (refering to an Islamic hero, not Biblical related). It was a diverted stream of the nile that left the main river at Assiut. This stream was allowed to enter the Faiyum but was not provided with a natural ext, thus inundating the region and transforming it into a lush garden and marsh site.
False Door
A door carved or painted on a wall. The ka would use this door to partake of funerary offerings and the deceased's family would leave offerings for the ka.
a site near Abu Simbel, below Aswan, which contained temples and a rock chapel from teh New Kingdom. Also there is a temple of Tutankhamun.
called shoy or shai by the Egyptians who put great importance of the destiny of each individual. Shoy was the good or ill laid down for each at the moment of birth by the Seven Hathors. If the fate was good, it was called Renenet (Renenutet) after the goddess of generation. In cases of royal princes, the heirs, the Seven Hathors guaranteed a favorable fate. They arrived at the crib of a prince born on an unlucky day and changed him, putting a lucky child in his place to advoid disaster for the nation.
Fecundity Figure
A type of offering that placed at the base of temple walls. The bearers are depicted bringing offerings into the temple. The male figures are often shown with heavy pendulous breasts and bulging stomachs. This symbolizes the abundance of the offerings they bring.
Used by the cults of Osiris and Anubis, it was an animal skin hanging from a stick.
First Occasion
an ancient term which meant the primeval times, called pat, paut or paut-taui. The First Occasion denoted the appearence of a god on earth.
First Under the King
a title used by court officials, denoting a particualr rank and the right to rule a certain region in the king's name. In Upper Egypt the senior officails were also called the "Magnates of the Soutehrn Ten." This affirmed their hereditary/aquired rights as an elite group of govrnors and judges.
A crop or whip used to ward off evil spirits.
called Senut by the Egyptians, the symbolic poles used in the frong of pylons at all major temples and shrines.
one of the most important insignias, used with the crook to represent the majesty of the kings. THe flail, carried by the god Osiris, is normaly shown in the hands of dead kings. It was once described as a whip but is now belived to represent the ladanisterion, the instrument used by early goatherds in the NEar East. Such a symbol dating back to the ancient eras would have magical connotations.
Followers of Horus
3 distinct groups, each with its own unique role in the life of the nation. The first, the supernatural, company bearing this name were creatures who supposedly accompanied Horus and were called Shemsu-Heru were honored at all Horus' shrines and temples. In the mortuary texts the Followers assume even more dramatic roles. They purify the deceased on their journey and are described in some documents as predynastic rulers who welcome the dead into their domains of eternal bliss.
Followers of Set (Seth)
a group of of Egyptians who participated in staged, mock battles in the cermonies honoring Osiris and Hours. They were called mesu-betesht, or desheru, the red ones.
Forty-Two Judges
the mythical divine being sin the Judgement Hall of Osiris, where the decased were called upon to give an account of their lives on earth. Each judges sat in council with the god Osiris to determine the worthiness of the mortals. THey were awesome creatures, some bearing titles to indicate their ferocity and purpsoe such as Long of Stride, Stinking Face and Eater of Entrails.
Friends of the King
a rank popular in the Old Kingdom and conferred through out history. An honorary rank, the tittle distinguished officials who had access to the king as a counselor or attendant.
a symbol of generation, rebirth and fertility. The frog goddess was Heket.
Funerary Cones
Clay cones inserted above a tomb's entrance with the name and title of the deceased.
Funerary Offerings
Bread, wine, beer and other food items that were provided by mourners or magically. If by magic then it was through inscriptions and pictures in the tomb that it was received.
A symbol represented by a lamp or brazier on a stand where a flame emerges. Fire was embodied in the sun and the uraeus, which spat fire. It also plays a part in the Egyptian concept of the underworld. The Christians concept of hell is similar to one terrifying aspect of the underworld. Most would like to avoid this place with it's fiery rivers and lakes that were inhabited by fire demons.
Garf Husein
a site below the First Cataract near the Wadi Alaki, where a temple of Ramesses II was discovered. It was dedicated to Ptah.
Gebel Adda
site of a rock cut temple of Horemhab of the 18th Dynasty. THe shrine was dedicated to the gods Amon and Thoth.
modern name for a site on teh western shore of hte nile, south of Erment. It was called Pi-Hathor and was center for the goddess Hathor from ancient times.
Gebel Zebara
a gold mining area in the eastern desert near Edfu. Seti I of the 19th dynasty dug wells there and imporved the living condition sof the Egyptian miners.
a site in the Faiyum called the Lower Valley. A large necropolis was discovered there with tombs from predynastic times.
Girdle of Isis
an ancient magical sign. It was an Ankh-shaped form with lateral arms drooping on either side. This amulet, called the tit, was made of red materials and honored the blood of Isis. It was believed that the symbol would confer strength upon the living and the dead.
a plateau area southwest of modern Cairo that served a sthe necropolis site for the Old Kingdom royal familes and court officials.
go to one's ka
an expression for the act of dying.
Governors of the Northlands
officials of the New Kingdome era who governed three provinces of the eastern territories.
Greatest of Seers
a title used for some of the prelates of the temples of Karnak, Memphis and Heliopolis
the human heart when described anatomically
the harem or household of lesser wives of the kigns, called per-khenret, was highly organized bureaucracy that functioned primarily to supply male heirs to the throne, particularly when a male heir was not born to a ranking queen. The earliest evidence for a harem dates to the Early Dynastic period and the tombs of several women found beside that of Djer (2900 bc) at Abydos. These women were obviously lesser ranked wives who lived in a harem. By the 6th dynasty (2323 bc) the institute was presided over by a queen and included educational facilities for the royal children and those of important officials.
Hat Aten
ancient name for a villa of the god Aten in the city Amarna. Quen Nefertiti moved out of the royal place and resided in this mansion soon after the death of one of her daughters.
called the "House of Gold" was an alabaster quarry near Amarna.
a site in the Faiyum, northwest of Lahoun where the Labyringth of Amenemhet III (1844-1797 bc) was discovered.
ancient word for festival.
The white crown; the crown of Upper Egypt (southern).
Heryshaf (Herysaf, Herisef Greek Harsaphes)
an ancient capital of the Kharga oasis.
site of a city called Kekhen. This is where the Narmer Palette was found as well as the Scorpion mace-head and copper statues of Pepi I and his son (2289-2255 bc)
A form of writing that was used throughout Egyptian history. This name was used for later periods when this particular form of writing was used only in religious texts. Its name comes from the Greek word meaning "sacred."
The Egyptian picture language. The pictures usually don't form letters but whole words or ideas. The word comes from the Greek word meaning "sacred carving."
High Gates of Medinet Habu
crenelated towers, designed with indented battlements whihc were on the eastern and western sides of the complex built by Ramessess III of the 20th dynasty.
High Priest
The head of the local priesthood.
Hike (Heka)
The personification of supernatural powers attributed to the gods and the eldest son of Atum. Doctors, who invoked his magical powers when practicing their arts, called themselves 'priests of Hike.'
Hittite Alliance
an Egyptian text translated from cuneiform, describing the pact between egypt and the Hittites during the era of Ramesses II and inscribed upon the walls of the temple Karnak and the Ramesseum.
a symbol of resurrection, also considered a poision to ghosts, the dead or evil spirits in a New Kingdom lullaby.
term used to designate the heirs to the throne.
House of Adorers
a religious insitution involved in the land during the Ramessid era.
a mountain or high hill in the region below the cataract as Aswan. A navigational point for Egyptian ships.
a site in the Delta, northeast of Bubastis, where the remains of a Ramessid-era temple were discovered with building blocks with the seals of Ramesses II.
Hypostyle Hall
A term for the grand, outermost halls of an Egyptian's house. They are believed to represent a grove of trees. It comes from the Greek word meaning "bearing pillars."
name applied by Manetho to the various Asiatic groups were recorded as having suddenly appeared in Egypt. Manetho wrote that they raced on horse-drawn chariots to establish a tyranny in the land. However, research indicates they did not enter suddenly with "a blast of God." During their take over of Egypt Thebes stood resolute against the expansion and the Hyksos were denied much of Upper Egypt. For awhile it appears the Hyksos and the Theban dynasty lived in some what peace, however, soon the kings of the Theban 17th dynasty were harassing the Hyksos. Apophis, the Hyksos ruler who came to the throne in 1585 bc, sent an insult to Sekenenre-Tao II of Thebes and found himself in the middle of a full-scale war as result. Kamose took up the battle when Tao died, using the desert oases as hiding places for his army. Kamose was within strinking distance of Avaris when he was slain/died. Apophis died a short time before him. Ahmose I, founder of the 18th dynasty and the New Kingdom, took up the battle and laid siege to Avaris. In 1532 bc the sity fell to him. The Hyksos retreated to Sharuhen in Palestine, the Egyptians followed and soon Sharuhen fell to Egypt and the Hyksos retreated to Syria.
Hymn of Rising
a ceremony conducted each morning in the palaces of Egypt, in which courtiers and priests waken the king and the gods with songs and hymns of praise.
word for the highly prized ebony wood
site near the Secound Cataract where vast quantities of black granite was quarried.
The Egyptian name for the heart. It was believed that the heart was the center of all consciousness, even the center of life itself. When one died it was said that their "heart had departed." This was the only organ that was not removed from the body during mummification. In the Book of the Dead, the heart that was weighed against the feather of Ma'at to see if an individual was worthy of joining Osiris in the afterlife. If he/the heart was found unworthy then it was fed to Ammut.
called akh in some texts, the mental and spirtial attributes of all human beings, which was belived to transform at death into a transparent, luminous essence.
senetjer, an imporant marterial for religious and royal rites in every era. Several types were used. Myrrh, a red form of incense importanted from Punt, was considered the most sacred and resrved for the most solemn of rituals. Frankincense (olibanum) was also favored.
name for the predynastic inhabitants fo the Nile Valley, it translates as "Pillar People."
term for a nobel, used in refrence to predynastic eras usualy.
Ished Tree
a sacred tree of life thought to be the Balanites aegyptiaca. The goddess Seshat and the god Thoth wrote the anmes of the new kigns at their accession to the throne on the leaves of this tree.
Various gods of fertility who are represent or show an erect penis, such as Min and Amun. It comes from the Greek word "with erect penis."
Judicial Papyrus of Turin
a document that gives an account of the harem conspiracy of the 20th dynasty in teh reign of Ramessess III
The ka is usually translated as "double." It was an astral being, yet it was also considered the guidign force for all human life. A person's ka came into existence when they was born. Khnum was the one who crafted a person's ka on his potter's wheel at the time of birth. Kas resided in teh divine beings as well and pious Egyptians placated the kas of gods in order to recieve favors. When someone died they "met their ka." One's ka lives on after the death of the body. Some tombs included model houses for the ka to live. Offerings of food and drink would be left at the tomb entrance so the ka could eat and drink.
Kadesh, Battle of
In the 5th year of his reign, Ramesses II marched out of the Egyptian outpost on the eastern desert with the Regiment of Amon and 3 other regiments following. He commanded more then 20,000 men and made his way to the valley of the Orontes River, overlooking Kadesh, the city who's king had warred with Tuthmosis III of the 18th dynasty for more then a decade.
site south of hte First Cataract where a fortress and temple were erected in the 18th dynasty, probably by Tuthmosis III. The temple was moved north when the Aswan Dam was opened.
modern name for the ancient Nesut-Towi, the "Throne of the Two Lands," or Ipet-Iset, "The Finest of Seats," site of the temple of the god Amon at Thebes. Karnak's remains are of the most remarkable religious complex ever built. Its 250 acres of temples, chapels, obelisks, columns and statues built over 2,000 years.
Keeper of the Door to the South
a title for the governors of Aswan and the administrators of Nubia.
a trading post located near the THird Cataract of the Nile. Dates to the reign of Amenemhet I of the 12th Dynasty. Was the capital of the short lived nation of Kush which was defeated by the 12th dynasty.
word for the shadow of a soul, deemed to be a spiritual essence that was capable of freeing itself at the moment of death. All desired to see their khaibit roam free beyond the grave. No explanation was given of the role or purpose of the shadow.
an Arabic term describing a storm condition of modern Egypt. Arising in February or March and lasting about two months the khamsin brings sand into reisdence and into the shrines on the Nile. This period was long viewed as a season of contagious diseases and illnesses.
The blue ceremonial crown.
name for a necropolis. Translated as "that which is beneath the god."
This is a flame or fire. Fire was embodied in the sun and in its symbol the uraeus which spit fire. Fire also plays a part in the Egyptian concept of the underworld. There is one terrifying aspect of the underworld, which is similar to the Christians concept of hell. Most Egyptians would like to avoid this place with its fiery lakes and rivers that are inhabited by fire demons. As an emblem it was associated with Geb and Osiris.
khopesh (khepesh)
sicle-shaped sword with a sharp outer edge used by the New Kingdome military. It was introduced by the Hyksos invaders or at least influenced by their weapons.
A spiritual entity often mentioned in association with the ba. It was viewed as an entirely spiritual and absolutely immortal being.
King Lists
various texts that list the rulers of Egypt in chronological order or have cartouches designating their titels and eras. There are an Abydos, Saqqara, Karnak Lists and a Turin Canon whihc is considered the most trustworthy and valued list. It was compiled in the reign of Ramesses II. It appears to have contained every king from Menes to Ramesses II, in correct order, with the years total for each reign.
name applied to the goddesses Isis and Nephthys in the Osirian cult but also represted women who were hired to accompany or greet the coffins of the deceaseed at funerals (professional mourners).
considered magical depending upon the way they were tired and located.
Arabic term for the cosmetic used to adorn the eyes. Dried remains of kohl have been discovered in tombs.
a high water island at Philae and was used by the 18th dynasty kings a s a staging point for the Nubian expeditions of the New Kingdom.
Greek form of kapet, a popular incense or perfume composed of many ingredients.
a mystic symbol and amulet depicting the ascension of Osiris. Was called Maqet in some cult centers and was used to honor the goddess Nut. Modles of the ladder were placed in tombs to protect the deceased and to invoke the aid of the god of the daed.
Lake of FLowers
one of the eternal paradises awaiting all dead Egyptians. The presence of fresh water, cool winds and flowers were to be essential to any paradise.
Lands of the Bows
a legendary destgnation of the territory below the First Cataract. The armies of the Early Dynastic Period conducted expeditions into the region and this traditionaly designation related to the Nine Bows remained throughout the Pharaohnic era.
lapis lazuli
a semipresiou stone imported from other sources that were extremly popular. Opaque, dark or greenish blue, often flected with gold, it was used extensively in jewelry and to a lesser extent for small sculptures, scarabs and amulets. The Egyptians called it khesbedji. The goddess Hathor was sometimes called the "Mistress of Lapis Lazuli."
Lector Priest
Translates as "One who bears the ritual book". This priests function was to recite from the ritual texts.
a vegetable considered sacred to the god Min and endowed with magical properties. It was belived to be a magical weapon against the dead, able to prick them.
Libyan Palette
a fragment of a commemorative tablet, either predynastic or dating to the 1st dynasty. The vessel resembles the Narmer Palette but depicts a variety of trees, plants and animals and an assault. Was discovered in Abydos.
Lily Lake
called the Lake of Flowers in some texts.
Linen of Yesterday
a poetic image to denote death and the changes that dyign brings to humans.
Lions of Sebel (Sebua)
a remarkable pari of stone figures erected by Amenhotep III of the 18th dynasty at Sebel in southern Nubia. THey were carried away by Ethiopians when they invaded and are now in the British Museum. During Akhenaten's reign, the inscriptions on the lions were destroyed, being of a religious nature.
modern name for the 12th dynasty capital of It-Towy. The pyramids of Amenemhet I and Senwosret I were discovered here.
List of OFferings
a common text that specified the gifts to be made to the deceased as part of the mortuary ceremonies. Offerings of meat, drink and incense were made each day by priests of the funerary rituals, who were commissioned to preform the acts.
Litanies of Sokar
a compliation of 100 lines addressed to the god SOkar, a Memphite deity of Tuat (underworld). In early ears he was the prtector of the necropolis at Giza.
Litany of the Sun
attributed to the original cult of the god Ra, a religious text discovered in teh tomb of Seti I of the 19th dynasty.
A symbol of birth and dawn; it was thought to have been the cradle of the sun on the first morning of creation, rising from the primeval waters. The lotus was a common architectural motif, particularly used on capitals
modern Arabic name for Southern Opet, the area of Thebes that was dedicated to the god Amon during the New Kingdom.
The concept of order, truth, regularity and justice which was all important to the ancient Egyptians. It was the duty of the pharaohs to uphold Maat.
Solar name - also know as throne or Horus name - of Hatshepsut when she took the title of Pharaoh. It means Truth and Soul of Ra.
expression meaning "true of voice," used to denote human eings judged as pure and worthy of eternal bliss.
Magnates of the Southern Ten
a title given to certain governors, normaly hereditary nobles of the nomes of Upper Egypt.
the sacred bark upon which the god Ra rode into the sky each morning as the sun.
The mythical mountain on which the sun set. The region of the western horizon. One of two mountains that held up the sky, the other being Bakhu. The double lion god, Aker, guarded these peaks.
The Arabic word meaning; "bench." Used to describe tombs of the Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom. The basic form resembled a bench. False doors were designed to serve as stelae on which achievements, honors and aspirations of the deceased could be proclaimed. Sometimes the flase doors were actual entrtances set into the walls that led to the serdab, the chamber in which the statue(s) of the deceased were placed. Statues were normaly depositied in teh serdab chambers of the kings, one for each royal name or religious title.
called ma'au when large in form. Word for cat and the name of the feline deity worshiped at Bubastis.
May the King Make an Offering
a phrase used, Hetep-di-Nesut, translated as "An Offering Given by the King." The words normaly began the funerary texts written on selae and on the tomb walls of the deceased.
May My Name Prosper
a mortuary phrase. The Egyptians belived that any nameless creatrue/human that was forgotten was unable to exist in the afterlife.
name given to the units of the Nubian forces long in service of Egypt, particuarly under Kamose of the 17th dynasty when he began his campaigns to drive otu the Hyksos. Kamose's father, Sekenerre-Tao II had started the war. The Medjay, famed as warriors of cunning and stamina, served as couts for the Egyptians on the marches or at the oases of the Libyan Dseret. In battle they formed light infantry units and rushed to the front lines, delighting in hand-to-hand combat.
A protective amulet invoking the divine favor. It was usually worn on a string of beads at the back of the neck, probably as a counterpoise to items of jewelry worn in front. Many of these amulets have been found in tombs. They were supposed to bring fertility to women and virility to men.
A scribe's pallet. Writing was a very important skill to the ancient Egyptians. Scribes practiced Menhed. The writing equipment used by scribes consisted of a palette, which held black and red pigments, a water jar, and a pen. To be a scribe was a favorable position, even some kings and nobles are show proudly displaying scribe palettes.
a great mythical serpent that figured in to the cosmogonic and religious texts. Mehen was carried through the sky each day by divine bearers. It surrouned the solar bark of the god Ra, preserving the deity in its coils.
name for the royal sceptre having one flat end. It was symbol fo the kingly power and was used in many eras.
capital of ancient Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period and was a seat of politcal power even when the kings had other capitals. Originally named Hiku-Ptah or Hut-Ra-Ptah, the "Mansion of the Soul of Ptah." Memphis wa slocated on the western side of the Nile, south of modern Cairo. It was supposedly founded by Aha (2920 bc). Legend state that the kign altered the course of the Nile in order to clear the plain for his capital. In some eras the city was called Ankh-Tawy, "the Life of the Two Lands."
an astral gauge used for archittectural surveys and construction projects. Similar to the modern plumb line.
word for evening, which acutaly means the "time of birth." It was belived that the stars were swallowed by a divine sow each sunrise. THey were given birth each evening.
Mistress of the House
Housewife, title given to married ladies from the Middle Kingdom onwards.
Pertaining to the burial of the dead.
Mortuary Cult
People, usually loved ones of the deceased, who provided funerary offerings for nourishment of the deceased's ba and ka.
Mortuary Priest
Called the "servant of the ka." This was a Person who was appointed to bring daily offerings to a tomb.
From the Persian word; "moumiya." A preserved corpse by natural or artificial means. Mummification involved thoroughly drying the body to remove the source of decay.
called anti, the aromatic plant from Punt. THe trees were planted on temple ground sand the gum resin product of the plant was used in rituals as incense and perfume to the gods.
enclosed shrine areas that were reserved for the statues. A small wooden naos was normally placed inside a monolithic one in hard stone; the latter are typical of the Late Period, and sometimes elaborately decorated. Also used as a term for temple sanctuary.
site north of Thebes where predynastic burials were discovered. It also served as a necropolis area for the 1st Dynasty (2900 bc). The name of the site lends itself to the period of social and cutlural growth. It contained vast amounts of pottery and cylinder seals as well as tomb sites makred with the names of Narmer, Aha and others.
Narmer Palette
called Narmer's Victory Palette. It was discovered in Hierakonpolis. The palette was designed for ceremonial use. On it Narmer is depicted in the war crown of Upper Egypt and in the red crown of Lower Egypt, signifying that he conqured that territory. He is also depicted a sa bull (a royal symbol) destorying a city with its horns and trampling enemys under his hooves. On the reverse side, two fallen figureds lie before him. The god Horus is shown coming to hte king's aid by brining prisoners to him.
natron (net-jeryt, hesmen, hesmen desher)
A naturally occurring salt used as a preservative and drying agent during mummification foudn in the Natron Valley near modern Cairo. It is a mixture of four salts that occur in varying proportions: sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. It was used as a detergent in the early eras and then adopted as the main preserving agent for mortuary rituals.
Nauri Decree
a cocument issued by Seti I of the 19th dynasty in the 4th year of his reign. It incorporateed prior legal codes, serving as a charter for the temple of Osiris at Abydos and for its various estates, and was designed to ensure the maintence of the king's mortuary cult after his death. The workers were subject to a stern code of behavior while they built the tomb, with penalities for crimes clearly spelt out. The decree poitns to the troubled era of Seti's reign. Normaly, workers on teh mortuary complexes of the kings would not have required warning sor threats in order to regulate their behavior. Consturction sites of the early periods were places of spirtuality and dedication.
translated as "all" it was a symbol of obeisance or prostration preformed in the precnese of a king or deity.
This is the Egyptian word for gold, which was considered a divine metal, it was thought to be the flesh of the gods. Its polished surface was related to the brilliance of the sun. Gold was important to the afterlife as it represents aspects of immortality. By the New Kingdom era, the royal burial chamber was called the "House of Gold."
The Greek word meaning; "city of the dead" normally describes large and important burial areas that were in use for long periods.
word meaning good, beautiful, complete or perfect.
Negative Confessions (Declaration of Innocense)
part of the mortuary riturals, a text developed by priests to aid the deceased when in the presence of teh Forty-Two Judges. The Confessions were to be recited to establish the mortal virue of the deceased. These Confessions detail some of the ethi8cal and moral concerns for various eras of Egypt.
A striped head cloth worn by Pharaohs. Normally blue and white and mounted with a uraeus.
The Egyptian word for the forces that are god or a group of gods, although the exact meaning is unknown.
Divine subterranean place, a name for the land of the dead.
name for the pennants used on temples to display the symbols of hte god in residence. Flagstaffs and pennants were part of all religious buildings.
word meaning god.
sacred mortuary ritual used in ceremonies of the "Opening of the Mouth" in some rituals, alongside the ur-heka.
Net Spells
magical formulas provided to the deceased in teh Book fo the Dead for protection on the deceased's last journey into Tuat. The Net Spells kept demons away fromt eh daed and placated He-Who-Looks-Behind-Himself, the ferry man on the Lake of Eternity.
Staircase descending into the Nile and marked with levels above low water; used for measuring, and in some cases recording, inundation levels. The most famous are on Elephantine Island and on Roda island in Cairo.
Nine Bows
term used to signify the subdued enemies of hte nation. The Nine Bows became a symbol of empire and was reproduced on stuates and even on the slippers of the kings, so that when he walked he symbolically trampled his enemies underfoot.
Title of the chief official of a nome. In the late Old Kingdom, and early Middle Kingdom nomarchs gained their office as hereditary rulers. They governed their nomes more or less independently of any central authority. During periods of highly centralized government, nomes ceased to have much political importance.
From the Greek, nomos, a administrative province of Egypt, called sepat in Egyptian. The nome system started in the Early Dynastic Period. During some periods, when there was a highly centralized government the nomes had little political importance. All were goveerned by an heri-tep a'a, a "great overlord," a hereditary title roughly equivlant to prince or count. They were responsible for military levies demanded by the kings and for taxes and tributes assessed for their regions. Each had a capital city and a cult center dedicated to the god of the territory.
land below the First Cataract called Ta-seti, Wawat and Kush in refrence to certain regions. It was of vital concern in all eras and as early as 1st dynasty the kigns were acitve there. Aha recorded as taking two villages below Gebel Es-Silsila and Jder's name appears in a mutilated battle scene at teh Wadi Halfa. Trade with Nubia was essential for ivory, gold, ebony, ostrich feathers and eggs, leporad skins, copper, amethyst, carnelian, feldspar, oils, gum resins, cattle, dogs and other exotic animals.
imporant sites located in teh western desrt. THey served as trade links to more distant regions and outposts against periodic invasions. Called wehat, meaning garden, tehy were a source of crops such as dates and grapes.
From the Greek word meaning; "a spit," called tekhenu by teh Egyptians. It is a monumental tapering shaft usually made of pink granite. Capped with a pyramidion at the top. Obelisks are solar symbols similar in meaning to pyramids, they are associated with an ancient stone called Benben in Heliopolis. They were set in pairs, at the entrances of temples, and to some Old Kingdom tombs. According to the old mythology, obelisks came in paris; two were in heaven and two were on the earth in every age.
A group of eight Egyptian deities representing the primeval Chaos that existed before the creation of the sun god.
substances prized and used for various rituals and ceremonies, mummification and cosmetics.
called Nubty, The Golden, a site south of Coptos on the western shore of the Nile that was noted for its gold mines. It was inhabited from predynastic times and was dedicated to the god Seth.
on the bricks
a term for giving birth. Women sat on specialy designed brick daises in teh last hours of labor. Meshkent, the goddess of birth, was depicted with two bricks in her insignia.
Opening of the Mouth
This ceremony was performed at the funeral to restore the senses of the deceased. Touching an adze to the mouth of a mummy or statue of the deceased completed the ceremony, it was believed to restore the senses in preparation for the afterlife.

Deck Info