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Final Exam


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Stephen Toulmin
arugmentative fields, made model of argument, which is parts of an argument, backing for arguments and challenging/testing arguments
Gerard Hauser
also critiques Habermas' public sphere. Challenges both Habermas and Fraser, focuses on Habermas
(Campbell) if you want good rhetoric, your style should be perspicatious and vivacity (simple, clear, natural, logical, use right words)
any of a number of movements and trends in the arts and literature developing in the 70s in reaction or rejection of the dogma, principles, or practices of established modernism
Toulmin model of argument
claim, data, warrant, backing, rebuttal, rebuttal,
In Hugh Blair, a developed appreciation of aesthetic experiences
commonality of substance - we have in common certain substances including physical embodiment, common aspirations, and language itself. (identification among people)
Belletristic Movement
literary movement focusing on clarity, grace, and beauty (style) a shift from rhetoric as the study of invention (argument) to rhetoric as the study or effects on audiences.
throught Burke's identification, we reach consubstantality, (if you practice identification well you reach cnstinsentiality
Kenneth Burke
Burke defined the rhetorical function of language as "a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols." He defined "man" as "the symbol using, making, and mis-using animal, inventor of the negative, separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making, goaded by the spirit of hierarchy, and rotten with perfection." ocial interaction and communication should be understood in terms of a pentad, which includes act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. the terministic screen -- Language as Symbolic Action
"every question has two sides"
Narrative Paradigm
critique of rational world paradigm. Fisher says not everyone is rational
public sphere
formed around the dialouge surrounding issues instead of a certain kind of people (all kinds of people talk about issue regardless of who they are, its important to everyone)
Universal audience
appeals to everyone all over that has something to do with the situation
Hugh Blair
wrote letters on rhetoric and belle lettres, concerned with "taste" argued that taste can be improved through experience and education. believed that style is related to ones "manner of thinking" - thus style is persuasive
a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression
Llyod Bitzer
made the rhetorical situation
narrative paradigm - fidelity, probability
fidelity: how faithful you are to what you already know (you know the story) probability: is this realistic? how probable is it
came up with idea of liberal arts. broad range of topics to be truly educated and a good citizen
Why was St. Augustine new/different from the past
He used rhetoric in preaching, letter writing and poetry
Giovanni Batista Vico
he had interests in the origins of human thought processes . His theories hearken back to the renaissance humanists and eventually to Cicero and the Roman theorists.
Jurgen Habermas
came up with theory of the public sphere: the ideal speech community
"Speech is a powerful lord"
Chaim Perolim
talked about universal audience
Nancy Fraser
Subaltern Counterpublics: She recognizes that subaltern counterpublics may also create their own forms of exclusion but they are still a good in that they allow formerly ignored realms of discussion to emerge
Walter Fisher
narrative rhetoric did critique of rational world paradigm and made narrative world paradigm
rhetorical situations (3 components)
exigence, audience, constraints
any limits, barriers, or boundaries within which rhetoric is created or advanced. (audience beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, time, location/setting, occasion, law, the speakers own rhetorical abilities, availability of evidence, complexity of topic)
George Campbell
offered a "scientific rhetoric" based on psychology in the Philosophy of Rhetoric, the first book that focused on how rhetoric works rather than how to teach it
counter-public sphere
areas where these people can create and circulate counter discourses (such as feminism, black power, GLBT acceptance)
bell hooks
Primarily through a postmodern female perspective, she has addressed race, class, and gender in education, art, history, sexuality, mass media and feminism.
Agonistic rhetoric
authorititative rhetoric, opposite of invitational rhetoric (feminist have appropriated these terms)
Henry Johnston Jr.
said con amore (with love)
Ethos (artistotle's constitutes of)
to have good ethos requires 3 things, intelligence, virtue, and goodwill.
what are two parts of Ciceros perfect orator?
wisdom and eloquence
Rational World Paradigm
everyone is rational and we are a rational world, we all have ability to reason
invitational rhetoric
a rhetoric that does not require or assume intent to persuade
"an imperfection marked by urgency" a problem that invites a response (the reason for speaking) timing
Feminist Critique of traditional theories
the gendered tradition. rhetorics link with civic action, rhetoric linked with power, persuasion, conversion, contest, rhetoric linked to formal advance education
symbolic action
rhetoric is a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols
how an idea "comes to life" in the mind of an audience (goes with perspicacity)
ideal speech community
: A realm of social life between the state and the private sphere where public opinion can be formed and directed toward the common good
Peter Ramus / dismemberment of rhetoric
person responsible for dismemberment of rhetoric. he took 5 canons and said you are studying too much. he put invent, arrang, delivery with logic and style and delivery with rhetoric. rhetoric is solely style and delivery, other stuff is for philosphers
Elocutionary Movement
only focuses on delivery. solely delivery and practice. doing things the "proper way"
Form (in Burke)
an arousing and fulfilling of a desire in an audience
Terministic screens
Burke's term to describe the fact that every language or choice of words becomes a filter through which we percieve the world.
Richard Whately
wrote elements of rhetoric which focused on issues of argument - burden of proof - status quo. if you want to change status quo then you have the burden of proof. the person that likes status quo doesnt have burden of proof. who has burden of proof? the person that has the presmption or the preponderance of probability/evidence
NOT the physical audience "only those persons who are capable of being influenced by discourse and of being mediators of change"
Aristotle's Definition of Rhetoric
"Let rhetoric be the power or capacity in every given case to see or observe the available means of persuasion."

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