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HIST 105


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Capitol of Netherlands, wealthy/large international seaport, open to worldwide trade. (tulip trade)
Bills of exchange
Checking system/confirmation system where you send a piece of paper, rather than the actual money (Europe)
Bologna and Paris
First universities in these cities.
Cabinets of curiosities
What Europeans collected as artifacts when they traveled abroad – what fancied, amazed and excited them.
Coalfields (Chinese and European)
Wet(euro) vs. Dry(china). Compare to sugarcanes in Caribbean.
Copernican system
Heliocentrism. Earth orbits the sun. Galileo revived. Disproved Ptolemy.
Courtyard compound (siheyuan)
Feng Shui. To achieve optimum flow of Qi.
Confucian classics
Texts that embodied the Chinese way of life, code conduct
During industrial revolution, both China and England and Europe used wood as fuel and building source. Population boom – cut down trees.
East India Companies
First actually organized corporation with a stock market in Europe.
Feng-shui (geomancy)
Way of arranging items to promote optimum flow of Qi
Done as “fetish” and status symbol since only wealthy could afford keep women unproductive. (China
Forbidden City
Beijing – only eunuchs, aristocrats allowed in.
French Revolution
Embodied by: Maximillian Robespierre, storming the Bastille.
Confined space for Jews
Grand canal
Connected the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. Bridged cultural exchanges between North and South China – main artery between the two. Chinese also build roads, they aren’t just all scholarly and only about thinking – they DID stuff.
Guangzhou (Canton)
Only place Europeans could trade to China – Opium Wars.
Habsburg Empire
Catholic family all connected through Europe. Bloodline that married through Europe – closest thing to being unified under one ruler
Han ethnicity
Majority ethnic group in China.
Huiguan (native place association)
Where people could stay according to surname and work and learn trade/handicrafts.
Kangxi, Qianlong Emperors
Saw greatest land expansion of China, pinnacle of Ming dynasty.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided up lands into equal cubes (6miles x 6miles) but didn’t work because they didn’t account for the curve of the Earth – reflected how westerners viewed nature/Earth.
Lineage halls
Ancestral temple where you acknowledge ancestors
Big chunk of land French owned in America. Competition for land overseas as well, not just at home in Europe.
Manchus, Manchuria
Outsiders that came to rule in China to become more ‘Chinese’ than the Chinese themselves  Qing dynasty. About tolerance.
Mandate of Heaven
How Chinese reasoned taking back over, having revolution when ruler lost mandate of heaven.
Martin Luther
Leader of the Protestant reformation. Post 95 theses on Catholic Church.
Middle Kingdom
What China called itself – how they viewed they were the center of the world.
Mongolia, Tibet
Mongolians, attacked the Chinese, so Chinese built great wall to keep them out. Chinese took over Tibet.
National debt
Held all debt of England. (Bank of England) Kept looking for excuses to keep printing money (like during war). A central place for money, debts.
Ottoman Empire
Enemy of Europe
Mine in Bolivia where Spanish got their silvers.
Provincial examination compounds
Could not leave. Scholars had to make it through the exams to gain higher scholarly status.
Republic of Letters
Network of people, mathematicians, scientists, etc. from other European countries to discuss science, math in private.
Robespierre, Maximilien
Head of committee of Public Safety.
Russian Empire
Wanted to westernize Russia. Treaty of Nerchinsk.
Seven Years’ War
Where French employed Native American’s help to fight the British.
Strategic hamlet system
System of sorting out the rebels in China to find the white lotus members.
Taiping Rebellion
Guy who thinks he is the brother of Jesus. Taiping = “Kingdom of heaven and piece”. Sect of Christians in interior China
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the 30 years’ war but did not stop protestant/catholic feud.
Tribute relationship (China)
If you wanted to trade with China, you had to trade on THEIR terms.
Universities. Center of education with abstract ideas
White Lotus Rebellion
Returning China to Chinese rule. Stopped by strategic Hamlet system.
Harmony and Taoism. Men = white, women = black. Good has bad in it and bad has good in it. Everything has balance.
Why did China’s many ethnicities cohere so durably around a single state?
As long as no one challenged its “sole superpower” status, the Qing state stood everything to gain by promoting tolerance. Everyone had the same hairstyle. Qing wanted to take down the 3 feudatories. Did not want challenges to their unity.
Why did Europe’s many states cohere so weakly around a single religion?
- European monarchs back one or another religion, which made them go against other types of religion which caused competition between religion.
- EVIDENCE: Martin Luther, 30 yrs war, Protestantism, Henry VIII, Habsburg, Westphalia treaty ended 30 years war (1618-1648) but not the feud between protestant/catholic conflict.
Why was early modern Europe so much more intolerant than imperial China?
- (similar to above answer)
If European families were nuclear and Chinese families were extended, what
consequences did this have?
- Chinese had no outward exploration, just upward – not interested in exploration, but in gaining knowledge, wealth. Europeans were exploring, getting ideas, bringing them back.
- EVIDENCE: Chinese compound with all family (Jia) living together. Chinese favored males to females. (120 males – 100 females)
If the Chinese worshipped their ancestors while the Europeans worshipped God
the Father, what consequences did this have?
- VIEW CHART. More war in Europe due to views on god. China – right ritual. Europe – right belief. Yin-yang. Qi.
Which type of family structure facilitated more upward mobility? More outward
- Upward – Chinese can work way up to status, being scholar, not about exploring, about connections with family/jia. Outward – Europeans – Born into wealth usually, into exploring.
How did Chinese paper currency compare with European stocks and bonds as
forms of nonmetallic wealth?
- Chinese had paper money. Europe had stocks and bonds. Paper could be exchanged for metals in Europe. British had better monetary institutions, but more countries had better wealth. China – lost money value because there was too much of it.
Why did China shift to an economy based on silver and how did the Europeans
end up supplying them with it?
- Spanish went to Bolivia, Europe colonized South America and was able to sell it to the Chinese. Chili peppers were brought to southeast asia that way, and Europeans got tea and Ming porcelain from it
Why did Europe industrialize first given China’s comparable economic resources
and organizational skills?
- Europe had wet coal. They also had a drive for competition as well as to explore. The republic of letters helped fuel scientific, inventive drive to explore world, universe and mechanisms.
Why did Europe’s universities decline while China’s examination system grew?
- Most of it was based on theology. Republic of letters made REAL learning possible when church did not sponsor a thought. Age of universities and colleges. Scholars were more valuable in China. China didn’t have a fight between church and scholar-life/learnings. China’s whole system was based on scholar-system, more valued. And there was nothing to threaten it, whereas Europe had religious unsettlement.
Why did Latin decline and written vernaculars emerge in Europe, while literary
Chinese, despite its complex and elitist system of writing, remained vital?
- Writtten vernacular:
Social – high status of merchants who spoke vernacular
Political – many states with regional dialects
Cultural – Protestants  bible in vernacular & Latin
Economic – piracy  theft  be able to sell more books with 2 languages rather than just one in Latin (made piracy harder to do because it was in different languages)
Why did Westerners come to objectify the natural world, whereas the Chinese
emphasized harmony with nature?
- European mathematics provided a language to objectify, control and eventually understand nature. Mathematics applied to astronomy and changed it forever (Copernicus  Galileo). Also changed travel and measuring of earth when longitudinal clock was invented. REPUBLIC OF LETTERS. Europe’s diversity vs. China’s unity. China’s Qi and flow with the number 12, dealing with body and nature. They emphasized harmony.
Why were Europeans the first to stage revolutions given China’s long history of
social revolt and political rebellion?
- China already had down that history and rulers were cyclical and used that to their advantage in their cyclical dynastic rule. They normalized revolutions, while Europeans changed EVERYTHING when it came to revolution.

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