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Career Development Comps


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History of Career Counseling
Industrial Revolution (started testing)
Measurment Movement, 1900-1940
Intelligence, ability, apitude, vocational interest

Smith-Hughes Act 1917
Federal grants to support nationwide vocational education program
Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933
Established the US employment service
George-Dean Act 1936
supported vocational education movement
George Merril
developed a plan for students to explore the industrial arts (Voc. Ed)
Jesse Davis
A counselor and later principal who emphasized the benefits of occupational information
Frank Parson
Interested in helping individuals make occupational choices

3 part formula: self assessment, study of options, careful reasoning

Ignited the interest in career guidance

Edmun Williamson
Directive counseling, he was a part of the group which later associated with the trait and factor approaches
Carl Rogers
Nondirective counseling
triggered the 2nd wave of testing movement
Career Guidance Movement 1960
child labor law, social services, women\'s movement
Federal government
funded head start, job corps, neighborhood youth corps, ect..
National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC)
The national career development guidelines for establishing career counseling and guidance programs in schools
SCANS Report
Secretary Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills: Necessary knowledge to find and hold a job--employability skills
3 foundation skills
Basic Skills
Thinking Skills
Personal Qualities

5 competencies

Title VII (7) of civil rights act of 1964
prohibited discrimination
The age of discrimination in employment act of 1967, 1978, 1986
Disallowing mandatory retirement
Title IX(9) of the Educational amendments of 1972
designed to prohibit discrimination in educational agencies and institutions receiving federal assistance
The equal pay act of 1963
prohibits sex discrimination in pay
the rehabilitation act of 1973, amended in 1978
include alcoholism as a handicap
the americans disability act of 1990
prohibits discrimination against individuals with disability
the civil right act of 1991
prohibits intentional discrimination in hiring based on race, religion, sex, national origin, or disability
Types of students: dependent
frequent hand raisers- low achievement
Types of students: Alienated
potential drop out, hostile, disruptive, aggressive
Types of students: Phantom
Rarely noticed, average, fade in to the background
CDOS Standards
Career development
integrated learning
universal foundation skills
career majors

Trait and Factor Theory (Parsons)
3 steps of career guidance
-study individual
- knowledge of occupations (survey occupations)
- match the individual with the occupation

Assumed individuals possess stable traits and career factors would experience little change

Develop a clear understanding of yourself, aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources, limitations and other qualities

- Test clients
-provide them with occupational information
- advise them as to which choices seem to offer a reasonable chance for their future success

Trait and Factor (E.G Williamson)
6 steps to career counseling:
-follow up

Emphasized the importance of DEVELOPMENT assessment and the use of career information

Became the foundation of many vocational counseling programs

Weaknesses: lack of DEVELOPMENTAL CONCERN (people change),over simplifies process, limited in focus to specific test results

Developmental Theory (Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma)
Leaders: Stanly Hall, Jean Piaget, Erikson

First prominent theory of career choice that was conceptualized from a developmental standpoint(Ginzberg ect)
- process begins around 11 ends age 17

Stages of development- Ginzberg
-before age 11
-play oriented, initial value judgement about the world of work

-ages 11-17
-recognition of like and dislike
-capacity (ones ability)
-value (perceptions of occupational styles)
-transition (aware of career decisions and responsibilities)

- 17-adult
-exploration stage (focus on college entrance, narrow down career choices)
- crystallization(make committment to a specific career field)

Claimed- occupational choice is a life long process
- specification (Select a career)

Developmental Theory- Donald Super
Most influential developmental career researcher

Major concepts:
-vocational stages
-vocational tasks
-implementation of the self concept in developing career identity
- development of vocational maturity
-career patterns

Career planning involves various ROLES in which one is involved

Developmental Stages:
growth (birth-14)
exploration (15-24)
establishment (25-44)
disengagement (65+)

Donald Supers Developmental Stages
Growth 0-14
Exploration 15-24
Establishment 25-44
Maintenence 45-64
Disengagement 65+

Donald Supers Vocational Tasks
Crystallization 14-18
Specification 18-21
Implementation 21-24
Stabilization 24-35
Consolidation 35+

Archway Model
Vocational self concept development through physical and mental growth, observations at work, working environment, and individual experiences

Can recycle through stages

Decision making approach (David Tiedeman)
Based on Erikson\'s stages of development, ego identify is the central importance in the career development

Individuals strive to integrate with society:
-self in situation, self in world, and orientation of work evolve after the developmental identity

if uniqueness of individual is congruent with uniqueness of the world of work, integration, synethesis, success, and satisfaction will follow


2 period of decisions:
-implementation and adjustment

Vocational Personality Theory (John Holland)
Career choice is an extension of personality in to the world of work

one chooses a career to satisfy one\'s preferred personality orientation

categorized 6 personality types:
-Realistic: auto mechanic, farmer, electrician

-Investigate: chemist, dentist, nurse

- artistic:music, painter, art teacher

- social: teacher, nurse, counselor, psychologist

- enterprising: salesperson, manager, supervisor, head coach

- conventional: bookkeeper, accountant, banker, secretary

Holland\'s Hexagon Model:
Consistency (the degree of fit between personality and work environment)
--Differentiation (individs. who fit a person. type show little resemblence to other types)
--congruence (you and environment)
vocational identity

Personality Theory: Needs Approach (Ann Roe)
Drew heavily from Maslow\'s hiearchy of needs:
--Higher needs: physiological needs
--Lower needs: need for self actualization
--Until higher need are met, the lower needs will not be attended too

Maslow\'s Hierarchy of needs:
1. Physiological
2. saftey
3. belongingness
4. esteem
5. cognitive
6. aesthetic
7. self actualization
8. self transcendence

Believed the needs structure of the individual would be greatly influenced by early childhood experiences
1. needs satisfied- career choice is less likely to be driven by needs
2. needs not satisfied- career choice will be impacted

- focus on early relations with the family
- parental style affect
- emotional concentration
- overprotection
- over demanding
- avoidance
- and acceptance

- Less likely to chooice a work situation that reflects your home life in which you grew up in

Social Learning Theory (John Krumboltz)
Based on Bandura\'s social learning theory to career decision making

individuals learning experiences with its developmental process can determine one\'s personality and influence one\'s behaviors

Life events that determine career selection

Learning experiences are combined to shape each person\'s career path

Career development involved 4 factors:
1. genetic endowment
2. environmental conditions and events
3. learning experiences
4. task approach skills

4 factors involved in career development for Krumboltz
1.Genetic endowment
2.environmental conditions and events
3.learning experiences
4. task approach skills

Key concepts of diversity in career world
Latinos largest minority

Asians- value family, emotional restraint

Arab americans- extended family valued, men are heads of their families, family honor very important.

Perkins III Grant
developed more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and postsecondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs
established the entitlement of children who receive special education services and transition services
Characteristics of age levels in relation to career development
Elementary School age:
- period for children to develop awareness of self and careers

Middle School Age:
- Students need to be provided with timely, relevent, and accurate educational and occupational information
- start exploring their educational and vocational goals

High School Age:
- have a growing understanding of world of work
- achieve emotional independence from parents
- set realistic vocational goals and make plans for achieving those goals

hollands hexagon model
consistency- degree of fit between one\'s persononality type and work environment

differentiation- individuals who fit one personality type will shoe little resemblence in other types

congruence- personality type matches the work environment

vocational identity- clear and stable picture of their goals, interests, and talents

auto mechanic


art teacher

head coach

head coach


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