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Chapter 6-10 US History


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Opposed the ratification of the Consitution; states' rightists; concerned that the Constitution contained no Bill of Rights
Article of Confederation
Ratified in 1781, US's first Constitution. Sharply limited central authority by denying the national government any taxation or coercive power
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, adopted in 1791; product of Antifederalist influence; protects individual liberties against the power of national government
Electoral college
Constitutional Convention adopted this system as a method of electing presidents. Each state had electors equal in number to its representation in Congress.
Advocated ratification of the constitution; Centralizing nationalists
Federalist Papers
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison produced this series of essays explaining and defending the stronger national government created by the Constitutional Convention of 1787
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided for the surveying and sale of America's Western territories. It favored speculative land development companies, but it promoted nationalism
New Jersey Plan
James Madision offered the Constitutional Convention the Virginia Plan calling for proportional representation in Congres. William Paterson's _______ ______ _______, hoping to protect the less populous states, called for equal representation in Congress for each state. This controversy was settled by the Great Compromise
Northwest Ordinance
Formulated plans for governments in America's northwestern territories, defined a procedure for the territories' admission to the Union as states, and prohibited slavery North of the Ohio River
The Founding Fathers agreed to submit their Constitution for _____ by specially called state conventions. This procedure gave the Constitution the endorsement of the people, and it also bypassed the state legislatures, where many opposed the national government the Constitution created
Shays's Rebellion
Daniel _____, a veteran of Bunker Hill, led an armed rebellion of farmers in western Massachusetts to prevent state courts from foreclosing on debtors unable to pay their taxes. The rebellion convinced nationalists that to suppress or inhibit such rebellions, the nation needed a stronger national government
Virginia Plan
James Madison offered the Constitutional Convention the ________ ______ calling for proportional representation in Congress.
John Adams
Washington's vice president and defeated Jefferson for the presidency in the election of 1796. During his term he resisted his party's demand for war with France, but lost his bid for reelection in 1800
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798, Federalist Congress passed these acts to attack the Republican party and suppress dissent against the Adams administration and Federalist policies
Bank of the United States
In 1791, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton proposed the creation of a joing public and private national bank to store government funds, collect and expend government revenue, and issue bank notes to serve as national currency
Battle of Fallen Timbers
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne's army decisively defeated the Indians in Ohio, and the ensuing Treaty of Greenville opened the way for white settlement in the region.
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Aaron Burr received 73 votes in the electoral college. Because of the tie, the Constitution required that the House of Reps, voting by states, chose between them. Jefferson was elected and the 12th Amendment was adopted to prevent a similar occurrence in the future.
Federalist Party
One of the original two political parties.. this party was organized by Alexander Hamilton and generally stood for B national government, a mercantilist economy, implied constitutional powers, and friendship with Britain
Edmond Genet
Special representative to the US sent by the French government to seek support for the French Revolution. He was popularly received, but when he began recruiting ships and men for service to France, President Washington demanded his departure
Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton was the first secretary of the treasury. He was the leading spokesman for a B national government and organized the Federalist Party
implied powers
argued that Congress's powers went beyond those explicitly provided in the Constitution; that so long as a bill's purpose was constitutional, Congress had the pwer to enact it. This is also called "loose construction" of the Constitution.
John Jay
Coauthored "The Federalist," served as chief justice, and negotiated the controversial Jay Treaty with Britain in 1794-1795
Jay's Treaty
Treaty with Britain in 1794 in which the British agreed to evacuate posts in the American Northwest and settle some maritime disputes. Jay agreed to accept Britain's definition of America's neutral rights. The terms of treaty provoked a storm of protest, but was narrowly ratified in 1795
James Madison
proposed the VA plan to the Const. Convention, coauthored "The Federalist," and helped Jefferson organize the Republican party. He wrote "The Federalist" No. 10, the VA Resolution, and became president in 1809
Thomas Pinckney
negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo with Spain in 1795. It opened the Mississippi River to American trade, guaranteed Americans the right of deposit at New Orleans, and settled a dispute over the FL boundary
Quasi War
France interpreted the Jay Treaty as threat to French interests, and in 1797, the French began seizing American ships while American privaters began attacking French shipping. This undeclared war on the high seas was dubbed the ____-____ or False War
(Democratic)-Republican Party
One of the original two political parties, organized by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson and generally stood for states' rights, an agricultural and commerce economy, strict construction of the Constitution, and friendship with France
12th Amendment
ratified in 1804, provided for separate balloting for president and VP in the electoral college
Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote these resolutions. They argued the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional, and Jefferson argued that each state had a general right to declare null and void congressional acts they deemed unconstitutional
Whiskey Rebellion
Western Pennsylvania farmers violently resisted paying the tax on whiskey imposed by Hamilton's financial program. In 1794, they threatened to destroy Pittsburgh. Washington and Hamilton marshaled the full force of the army to suppress the rebellion, but the rebels had dispersed by the time the army arrived.
XYZ Affair
American peace commissioners sent to France by President Adams in 1797 were insulted by their French counterparts, dubbed Mr. _ _ and _ in American newspapers. America's tender sense of national honor was outraged, and the affair led Federalists to demand war against France
Barbary pirates
Pirates from north Africa who seized trading vessels in the Mediterannean Sea and held crews and passengers for ransom.
Battle of New Orleans
Although it was fought two weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed, General Andrew Jackson's victory over the British at ____ _____ convinced many Americans, inattentive to chronology, that America had won the War of 1812 on the battlefield
Battle of Tippecanoe
In 1811, General William Henry Harrison led his forces against Chief Tecumseh's Indian confederacy at _____ Creek in the Ohio country. Indian confederacy was shattered
Aaron Burr
Tied Jefferson for the presidency in 1800 and became VP. He later killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel
Chesapeake incident
This US naval vessesl was fired upon and boarded by british officers in 1807 and 4 sailor were impressed into service for the Royal Navy. The incident provoked a clamor for war in the US, but Pres. Jefferon asked Congress for the Embargo Act instead
Continental System
Napoleons _____ ______ was supposed to make Europe economically self-sufficient and isolate Britain by depriving it of its European markets. The system ignored America's claims to neutral rights
Embargo Act
provoked by the Chesapeake incident and prohibited all exports from American ports. Pres. Jefferson hoped to pressure Britain and France into recognizing neutral rights,but this act damaged the US economy instead
Hartford Convention
A group of federalists met to protest the War of 1812 and propose several constitutional amendments. These antiwar Federalists were discredited when teh US achieved an honorable peace in the Treaty of Ghent that same month
British navy used press gangs to commandeer manpower for naval service. During the Napoleonic Wars, British captains impressed seamen from neutral vessles, even naturalized American citizens. This became a cause of the war of 1812
Judiciary Act of 1801
The lame-duck Federalist Congress created several new federal courts in this Act. Just before leaving office, Pres. Adams made several "midnight appointments" of loyal Federalists to these courts. The new Republican congres repealed the act and may appointments were never delivered
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Pres. Jefferon commissioned these two explorers to explore the LA territory and beyond to the Pacific Coast. Their expedition brought back a wealth of data and its resources
LA purchase
in 1804, the US purchased this territory from Napoleonic France for $15 million. The purchase secured American control of the Mississippi River and nearly doubled the size of the nation
Macon's Bill Number Two
Replaced the ineffective Non-Intercourse Act. It removed all restrictions on commerce with France and Britain, but it authorized the president to reapply non-intercourse to either power of one of them ceased violating American neutral rights
Marbury vs. Madison
William Marbury used the Judiciary Act of 1789 to support his case for appointment as a justice of the peace in Washington, D.C. In 1803, however, the Supreme Court ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional. Established the precedent for judicial review of federal laws
John Marshall
A federalist, chief justice of the US from 1801-1835. His court issued several significant decisions including those in "Marbury vs madison" and McCulloch vs. Maryland." His decisions generally expanded the power of the national government and promoted economic development
Non-Intercourse Act
Congress replaced the Embargo Act with this act. It forbade American trade only with Britain and France, and authorized the president to end this with either nation if it stopped violating Americas neutral rights
Orders in Council
Series of edicts blockading most European ports and barring from them all foreign vessels that did not first stop at a British port to pay customs duties. The orders ignored America's claims to neutral rights
John Pickering
District judge, insane, removed from office during President Jefferson's first-term attack on the Federalist-dominated federal judiciary
The Shawnee chief organized an Indian confederacy to try to revitalize Indian culture in the Ohio country. In 1811 his confederacy was shattered at the Battle of Tippecanoe. He was killed at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the war of 1812. Britain and the US agreed to end the state of hostilities. Neither side made major concessions. With Napoleon's defeat, the war issues had simply evaporated
War Hawks
Young congressional leaders who called for war against great britain in 1811 and 1812 as the only way to defend teh national honor and force the British to respect America's neutral rights
American system
Brainchild of Henry Clay. It involved a political trade-off: in return for eastern support for federal aid to railroad and canal construction, the West would support protective tariffs. This arrangement would stimulate manufacturing and demand for raw materials and increase the market for manufactured
Francis Cabot Lowell
headed the Boston Associates, whose Waltham, Massachusetts, textile mills added mass production, a new dimension to the factory system
Internal improvements
Following the WAr of 1812, federal aid to finance ________ _______ became a divisive political issue.These improvements included various construction enterprises such as turnpikes, canals, river and harbor clearing projects, and so on. The National Road was the first federally funded improvement project
Bank War
1832; Pres. Jackson vetoed a politically motivated proposal to renew the charter of the second bank of the US. Jackson's veto message asserted that the Bank was unconstitutional, a specially privileged institution, and vulnerable to control by foreign investors
Nicholas Biddle
president of the second bank of the US during the bank war of 1832. He was a competent administrator of the Bank's affairs, especially its regulating the avalability of credit by controlling the lending policies of state banks
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson defeated John Quincy Adams's bid for reelection to the presidency. The campaign was filled with personal attacks on both candidates, but the mudslinging turned out an unusually high number of voters
independent subtreasury
to ensure the absolute safety of federal funds, Pres. Van Buren proposed and Congress passed legislation creating this. It took the fed. govt. out of banking. All payments to the govt were to be made in hard cash which was to be stored in government vaults until needed
Indian Removal
Pres. Jackson viewed the Indians as savages who were incapable of self-government. He pursued a policy of removing Indians from the path of westward settlement. By 1840, most eastern tribes had been relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River
Jacksonian democracy
This concept of democracy glorified the equality of all adult white males - the common man.
National Republicans
Loosely organized political party that opposed pres. Jackson and his policies.
In his 1828 "Exposition and Protest," John C. Calhoun argued that if an act of Congress violated teh Constitution, a state could interpose its authority and declare the law void or inoperative within its own boundaries
Nullification Crisis
1832, South carolina convention nullified the tariff of 1832. President Jackson responded by threatening the use of federal troops to compel South Carolina to obey federal law. Congressional leaders worked out the compromise tariff of 1833 by calling for gradual reduction of tariff rates.
Panic of 1837
falling cotton prices and state defaults on debts frightened investors, and a general economic depression that lasted until 1843 began
Peggy Eaton Affair
Pres. Jackson asked for and received the resignation of his cabinet when their wives snubbed Secretary of War John Eaton's wife, Margaret. The incident further alienated Jackson and Calhoun, but caused Jackson to look more favorably upon Martin Van Buren, a bachelor who defended Mrs. Eaton
Pet banks
Jackson decided to withdraw government funds deposited in the Bank's vaults. Sec. of Treasury Roger Taney then redeposited teh fund in several state banks that Jackson's enemies dubbed "____ ____"
protective tariff
These were designed to protect America's infant industries from teh competition of less expensive foreign imports, thus making the nation's economy more self-sufficient. congress passed this act in 1816
Specie Circular
Jackson issued this to halt a speculative land mania fueled by the easy availability of paper currency issued by state banks. This required land purchasers to pay for public land in gold and silver. It abruptly halted the speculative boom
Tariff of Abominations
In 1828, Congress revised teh protective tariff law by generally raising tariff rates.
Trail of Tears
Defined the route of the tragic removal of teh Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Oklahoma under severe conditions in 1838
This party was organized in the 1830s and held together to oppose Pres. Jackson and his policies. Spiritual descendant of Hamilton and his nationalism
Worcester vs. Georgia
Supreme Court ruled that a state government could not control the Indians or Indian Territory lying within that state. With Pres. Jackson's endorsement, Georgia officials ignored teh ruling and forced the Cherokees to leave the state
John Quincy Adams
President Monroe's very successful sec. of state, who, after winning the election of 1824, had a very troubled and unsuccessful single term in the presidency
Adams-Onis Treaty
1821, Sec. of State John Q. Adams gained a favorable western boundary of the Louisiana Territory to the Pacific. Also, the United States purchased FL, but temporarily surrendered its claim to Spanish texas
Cotton gin
Eli Whitney; separation of cotton seed from fiber and expanded production of cotton
Era of Good Feeling
1817-1823 during Monroe Presidency. During this era, party rivalry diminished and a confident spirit of postwar nationalism pervaded the nation
Erie Canal
Financed by the state of NY with publi funds. this canal initiated the canal boom of the 1820s and 1830s
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Supreme Court ruled that states can regulate commerce that begins and ends in its own territory, but when teh transaction involves crossing a state line, Congress's constitutional authority to regulate interstate trade takes precedence
McCulloch vs Maryland
Supreme Ct ruled that the second Bank of US was unconstitutional
Missouri Compromise
1820, Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state to preserve the balance of slave and free states. Also, slavery was banned from the remaining part of the LA territory
Monroe Doctrine
At the suggestion of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, in 1823 this president announced in this doctrine that the American continents were no longer open to colonization, and that the US would look with disfavor on any attempt to extend European control over independent nations in the Western Hemisphere
James Monroe
Elected president in 1816 and served 2 terms. He was a weak leader, but his presidency succeeded in achieving several important foreign policy goals with Britain and Spain.
National Road
Built b/w Cumberland, MD, and Vandalia, IL, between 1811 and 1838, was the first major federally funded transportation project
Panic of 1819
US suffered its first nationwide economic depression. Caused by a fall in cotton prices and the contraction of credit. panic led to demands for more democracy in govt and hostility toward banks, as well as to a growing split within the Republican party
preemption rigths
Given to "squatters" - those who settled frontier lands in advance of its public sale. These laws allowed squatters to make the first legal claim to the land that they had settled
putting-out system
before the development of the factory system, goods were "put out" to individual workers to manufacture. Merchant capitalists supplied the workers with raw materials then paid for the finished items and took charge of their distribution and sale
Second Bank of the United States
1816; It came under heavy criticism during the panic of 1819. In 1832, Pres. Jackson vetoed a bill to recharter the bank
Tallmadge Amendment
When MO aplied for statehood in 1819, NY Congressman James Tallmadge introduced an amendment calling for the gradual abolition of slavery in MO. It failed to pass congress, but generated an angry debate b/w northern and southern leaders that raged for months
paved roadways were built as private usiness ventures in the early nineteenth century. To recover their costs of construction and make a profit, promoters charged tolls for the use of the them. One type of internal improvement

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