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MHD Cell injury, death, response


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What can an injury do?
it can disrupt the chemical processes of the cell or directly damage the chemical components of the cell
What are the general catagories of injuries?
hypoxia, physical, chemical, immunologic, biological, genetic, nutritional, aging degeneration
What happens when a cell is injured?
it changes function and structure for adaption
What are the four vulnerable biochemical systems?
cell membranes, aerobic respiration, ptn synthesis, genetic material
What biochemical changes determin degree of cel injury or induction of cell death?
depletion of ATP, oxygen deprivation or O2 free radicals, Ca Concentration, defective cell membrane permeability
Why do you get cellular swelling with hypoxia?
because dec in ATP production leads to a dysfunction of the Na pumps, Na inc inside the cell, H2O follows
What happens with an inc in IC Ca?
altered membrane permeability and activiation of IC enzymes
What are the types of free radicals?
O2 related, non-O2 related
What are the O2-related free radicals?
superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical
How do free radicals cause cell damage?
lipid peroxidation of membranes, nonperoxidative mitoch damage, lesions to DNA, cross link proteins
What is the most common causes of steatosis?
What are the reversible cell injuries?
cell swelling and steatosis (fatty changes)
What is the irreverisble cell injury?
apoptosis or necrosis
What happens in apoptosis?
nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cytoplasm forms apoptotic bodies, phagocytosis, no immune Rx,
When is apoptosis normal?
embryogensis, hormone dependent physiologic involution, death in proliferating cell populations, immune-related cell death
What is necrosis?
structural changes in nucleus and ytoplasm, leukocytes are present, enzymatic breakdown of the cell and denaturation of ptns
What is coagulation necrosis?
with severe ischemia in kidney and heart, leaves ghost-like remnants of intact cells lacking nuclei, outline is preserved, cytoplasm in intensly pink
Which necrosis has an intensly pink nucleus?
Which necrosis happens in solid organs?
What is liquifactive necrosis?
associated with bacterial infections, soft tissues, neutrophils, dead cells, liquid, abscess
Which necrosis is assocated with baterial infections?
Which necrosis happens in soft tissues?
What is caseous necrosis?
granuloma, amorphous, granular debris in center of granulomatous cell recction, resembles cheese curds?
Which necrosis is associated with TB?
Which necrosis looks like cheese curds?
What is enzymatic fat necrosis?
focal cell death in pancreas and surrounding fat, lipase is released and digest fat, fatty acids combine with Ca to form insoluble soaps
Which organ is associated with enzymatic fat necrosis?
How does enzymatic fat necrosis work?
pancreas spills lipases, lipases cleave fat in adjacent cells, fatty acids bind with Ca, leave soap
What is gangrene?
coagulation necrosis of an extremity can be lquefactive by bacteria contaminate

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