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Environmental pathology


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Particle size:__-__ microns do not reach distal airways, __-__ microns impact at bifurcation on distal airways, __ microns act as a gas
5-10, 1-5, .5
Particle concentration:__-__ppm overcomes scrubbing action
1-5 ppm
Non neoplastic lung reaction to mineral dust like silica & coal, macrophage phagocytosis & release of mediators --> fibrosis
Slowly progressive nodular fibrosis mostly in upper lobes, quartz smaller that a micron is retained & causes fibrosis (sandblasters & miner workers)
Diffuse parenchymal interstitial fibrosis, bronchiogenic carcinoma, localized fibrous plaques on pleural surface, mesiothelioma, lower lobes of lungs
which is the more pathological form of asbestosis, Amphibole or Serpentine?
most common cause of preventable mortality, slows healing, contains carcinogens, toxins, CO, & nicotine
Then best indicator nicotine intake is _________ blood/urine levels
Cancer of the lung, Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, MI, Systemic atherosclerosis, oral cancer are all effects of _________
Causes decreased O2 to heart (lung disease), contaction of coronary arteries, ventricular fibrillation & increased risk of MI
Can cause anaplastic anemia
Can cause hemolytic anemia & anaphylaxis
Can cause acute tubular necrosis
Can cause asthma & tinnitus
Salicylate (asprin)
Can cause Hepatic change
Tetracycline, Tylenol
Can cause Lupus
Can cause respiratory depression
Which is NOT an effect of exogenous estrogen: Enometrial carcinoma, breast carcinoma, thrombo-embolism, & cardiovascular disease.
Cardio disease is actually reduced by estrogen, endometrial c. increase when used alone, breast c. worse in combination w/ progestin
Breast carcinoma (after 45) and cervical carcinoma (risk based on lifestyle) are effects of oral contraceptives. OC is protective against endometrial carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma (T/F)
True; True
Oral antibiotics increase the effect of oral contraceptives
Acetaminophen over dose (15-25g) can lead to _____ _____
liver failure
An overdose (10-30g) of what leads to gastric ulcers, bleeding (by stoping formation of thromboxane 2), fluid electrolyte imbalance, respiratory alkalosis, & netabolic acidosis
_____________ is responsible for the damage in ethanol overdose (a metabolite)
Most addictive of all drugs(intense euphoria), no physical dependance, psychological withdrawal difficult (years)
Cocaine (yes, Nic you crack head)
Can cause life threatening situation in dental chair due to epi in local anesthesia --> arrhythmias (it blocks epi reuptake)
Cocaine cause all of the following except: fatal arrhythmias, open pupils, talkativeness, normal anxiety, jitteriness, tremor
normal anxiety, it resembles it but must be differentiated from
Acute effects of cocaine cause all of the following except: dialated pupils, vasoconstriction, rise in BP, tachycardia, arrhythmia, platelet aggregation, hyperpyrexia (high body temp), & rhabdomylosis (degeneration of muscle)
all of the above are effects
Chronic effects of cocaine cause all of the following except: perforation of nasal septum, increased lung capacity, dilated cardiomyopathy
increased lung capacity (should be decreased)
Heroin cause all of the following except: pupil constriction, xerostomia, slurred speech, pain reaction threshold decreased
pain reaction threshold decreased--it is actually INCREASED
T or F: cocaine is more hazardous than heroin.
You can die from heroin overdose from all of the following except: respiratory arrest, severe hemmorrhage, arrythmia, cardiac arrest.
severe hemmorrage
What is the initial "rush" of heroin due to?
histamine release
What stage of heroin use includes the following symptoms: vasoconstriction, sweating, pupillary dilation
cold turkey stage
Which heart valves can become infected due to side effects of heroin use?
right sided heart valves
All of the following are side effects of heroin use except: pulmonary edema, viral hepatitis, hypopigmentation, amyloidosis, constipation.
hypopigmentation (should be HYPERpigmentation)
T or F: Heroin addicts should be prescribed opiate analgesics.
False, Biatch!!!!
T or F: NSAIDS should be prescribed for heroin addicts
Vicodin, Vicoprofen, and Lortab are all_______.
What do the effects of Hydrocodones mimic?
What definition? Compulsive, obsessive pattern of abuse. Abuser feels life is impossible w/out the
Psychological abuse
What definition? Manifestation of withdrawal syndrome. Body goes through unpleasant experiences if user suddenly stops .
physiological abuse
What is the most widely used illegal ?
mary jane baby, light it up
delta-9 tertrahydro cannabinol is the psychoactive substance in what ?
In california where the reefer is legal for medicinal purposes, what treatement is it effective for?
glaucoma and radiation sickness
T or F: marijuana can cause birth defects
true, through chromosomal damage
all of the following are effects of methamphetamine except: temporary mood elevation, exhilaration (high), Increased mental alertness, sleepiness
T or F: you can become addicted to meth from just one use.
All of the following are side effects of meth use except: heart irregularities, Low pressure, depression, restlessness, tremors, severe fatigue.
Low pressure
what level of caffeine increases performance?
30-200 mg
what level of caffeine makes you a wired, crazed lunatic?
>500 mg
the acceptable limit for lead intake is ____ ug/dl; __________lead is more hazardous; ___% of ingested is absorbed; ____% ingested by kids is absorbed; ____% is taken up by bone; and lead binds to _________.
25; volatized; 10; 50; 80; disulfides
Formation of zinc protoporphyrin, gum line effect, anemia, and lines in your bones, a "wrist drop" (sort of like eric's) are all characteristic of what?
lead poisoning
what causes basophilic stippling of RBC's?
Hemoglobin has 200 times more affinity for ___ than _______.
CO; Oxygen
In regards to CO poisoning, ________ ________ occurs at 20-30% saturation, and _____________ occurs at 60-70% saturation.
systemic hypoxia; unconsciousness
How quickly can you die if you leave your car running in your garage?
five minutes
What disease? Slight headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue
mild exposure to CO
what disease? Throbbing headache, drowsiness, fast heart rate
medium exposure to CO
what disease? Convusions, uncosciousness, heart & lung failure, brain damage and possibly
severe exposure to CO
What people are are most affected by CO poisoning?
unborn babies, infants, ppl w/ heart disease
Oral contraceptives do NOT cause which one of the following: Thrombo embolism, Hypertension, Cardiovascular disease, Coronary artery disease
Coronary artery disease
P-450 is an enzyme that helps detoxify ethanol & medications (T/F)
What is the most common cause of liver injury/cirrhosis (from environmental factors)?
Alcohol (chronic alcoholism)
Which is a positive effect of alcohol: cerebral atrophy, cerebellar degeneration, optic neuropathy, inc HDL in , oral cancer.
inc in HDL

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