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Psychology 1-6


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6 approaches to psychology
biological, cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalytic, humanistic, cross-cultural
biological approach
focuses on how genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping techniques
goals of psychology
1.) describe the different ways that organisms behave 2.) explain the causes of behavior 3.) predict how organisms will behave in certain situations 4.) control an organism's behavior
a statement in support of a particular viewpoint based on experience
an association or relationship between the occurrence of two or more events
a method for identifying cause-and-effect relationships by following a set of rules and guidelines that minimize the possibility of error, bias, and chance occurrences
is a way to obtain information by asking many individuals - either person to person, or by telephone, or by mail - to answer a fixed set of questions about a particular subjects
case study
is an in-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, behaviors, or problems of a single individual
marked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions, suck as hiding to avoid people, not making eye contact, not wanting to be touched.
ADHD (Ritalin)
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, not diagnosed by any medical tests but on the occurrence of certain of certain behavioral problems. A child must have 6 or more symptoms of inattention, such as making careless mistakes in schoolwork, not following instructions, and being easily distracted and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity such as fidgeting, leaving classroom seat. Ritalin = popular drug/stimulant
cognitive approach
examines how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel
behavioral approach
studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors
psychoanalytic approach
stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life
humanistic approach
emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth,a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment
cross-cultural approach
examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning of a culture's members
scientific method
1.) ask 2.) identify 3.) choose 4.) assign 5.) manipulate 6.) measure 7.) analyze
Parkinson's disease
includes symptoms of tremors and shakes in the limbs, a slowing of voluntary movements, muscle stiffness, problems with balance and coordination, and feelings of depression. may develop a particular walk and freeze in space for minutes at a time
Fragile X Syndrome
an inherited developmental disability due to a defect in the X-chromosome. It can result in physical changes, such as a relatively large head with protruding ears, as well as mild to profound mental retardation
magnetic resonance imaging, involves passing non harmful radio frequencies through the brain. a computer measures how these signals interact with brain cells and transforms this interaction into an incredibly detailed image of the brain (or body). MRI's are used to study the structure of the brain
consisting of two hemispheres, which are connected by a wide band of fibers. responsible for vast array of responses, including learning and memory, speaking and language, emotional responses, making decisions
contains rewards/pleasure stimulated by food, sex, and money. contains visual and auditory reflexes.
involved in sleeping, walking, coordinating body movements, and regulating vital reflexes (hr, bp, respiration)
a bridge that connects the spinal cord with the brain and parts of the brain with one another. cells in the pons make chemicals involved in sleep
an area in the hindbrain includes cells that control vital reflexes, such as respiration, hr, and bp
thin layer of cells that cover the entire surface of the forebrain. frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
frontal lobe
voluntary movements interpreting and performing emotional behaviors, behaving normally in social situations, making plans
motor cortex
located at the back edge of the frontal lobe, initiating all voluntary movements. right moves left and vise versa
temporal lobe
located below the parietal lobe, involved in hearing and speaking coherently and understanding words
Broca's area
necessary to combine sounds into words and arranging words into meaningful sentences
Wernickle's area
plays a role in understanding speech and speaking coherent sentences
structure of the limbic system, regulates many motivational and emotional behaviors, controls much of the endocrine system by regulating the pituitary gland.
located in temporal lobe, involved in transforming many kinds of fleeting memories into permanent storage
"mind-body" debate
debate on how complex mental activities, such as feeling, thinking, learning, imagining, and dreaming can be generated by the brain's physical membrane fluids and chemicals
chemical produced by the brain and secreted in response to injury or severe physical or psychological stress. powerful pain reducing properties are similar to those of morphine
process where neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse and transported into the end bulbs
positron emission tomography; measure the function of the living brain, slightly radioactive juice entered into body and colors indicate activity levels
central nervous system
neurons located in the brain and spinal cord, cannot regrow or regenerate
peripheral nervous system
all the nerves that extend from the spinal cord and carry messages to and from various muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout the body. somatic + autonomic nervous systems
sympathetic NS
subdivision of autonomic NS, triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli, preparing the body for action
voluntary movement, carry information from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain
autonomic NS
PNS, regulates hr, bp, digestion, hormone secretion

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