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Bio exam OLE


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the scientific study of life the interactions between organisms that their natural environment
biological diversity includes animals, plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria
a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities major biomes: tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savanna, desert, temperate grassland, temperate woodlands and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest, tundra
a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place together with their nonliving environment
water cycle
evaporation (body of water) transpiration (leaves of plants) condensation (clouds) precipitation (rain) runoff seepage (ground) root uptake (plants)
characteristics of life
made up of cells reproduce based on a universal genetic code grow and develop obtain and use materials and energy respond to their environment maintain a stable internal environment change over time
definition of life
a process that all living things go through during this process they reproduce, grow and develop, and change over time
SI measurements
revised version of the metric system units based on multiples of 10 easy to use
chemical and hydrogen bonds
CHEMICAL ionic- one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another ion- positive or negative charged atoms covalent- electrons are shared between atoms molecule- smallest unit of most compounds HYDROGEN cohesion- attraction between molecules of the same substance adhesion- attraction between molecules of different substances
potential of hydrogen
pH indicates concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution pH scale ranges from 0-14, 7 concentration is neutral, 0- acidic, 14- basic each step on the scale represents a factor of 10
process be which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and CO2 into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates (sugars and starches)
stages of cellular respiration
I. glycolysis II. acyl co-enzyme A III. krebs citric acid cycle IV. electron transport V. chemiosmosis
ATP synthase
large protein that uses energy from hydrogen ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
substance that is dissolved
substance in which solute dissolves
uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
attraction between molecules of different substances
attraction between molecules of the same substance
the sum total of al chemical reactions in a living organism
the building up
where cellular respiration occurs can split in 2 aerobic exercise 20 minutes for 3-5 days/week causes mitochondria to reproduce
fats, oils, and waxes
animal starch
forms exoskeleton of insects
DNA making DNA
DNA making RNA
types of RNA
transfer (t) messenger (m) ribosomal (r)
dynamic (and examples)
changing examples: 1. gel -> sol 2. ER -> golgi -> vacuole 3. centriole -> spindle 4. nuclear membrane restored, chromosomes -> chromatin and cell divides 5. phago/pinocytosis, endo/exocytosis
two subunits come together (large and small) mRNA and tRNA come out of the nucleus tRNA will organize, pick up, and transfer a specific amino acid will take 1 enzyme and 1 ATP when tRNA joins with an amino acid anticodon matches up with codon growing protein termination codon two subunits come apart and mRNA leaves
stages of mitosis
interphase prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis
the way an organism reacts to its internal or external environment
signal that carries information that can be detected
single, specific reaction to a stimulus
description: inborn, controlled by the spinal cord or medula, involuntary examples: pulling hand off a hot stove, test at doctors, knee jerk
description: complex act performed without training examples: birds making nests, spider spinning web, defending yourself
conditioned reflex
description: reaction to a stimulus which has replaced the original stimulus examples: dog with bells and food
description: a learned response that has become completely automatic examples: biting fingernails, cracking knuckles
voluntary action
description: requires thought, reasoning, your will, and memory to bring about the desired response examples: practice for sports, sewing, cooking, gardening, problem solving
stages of meiosis
MEIOSIS I interphase I prophase I metaphase I anaphase I telophase I and cytokinesis MEIOSIS II prophase II metaphase II anaphase II telophase II and cytokinesis
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
organism whose cells contain nuclei
group of similar cells that perform a particular function most animals have 4 types: muscle, epithelial, nervous, connective
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions examples: each muscle in our body
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into a cell
separation of alleles during gamete formation
independent assortment
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Thomas Hunt Morgan
fruit fly eyes found that majority of fruit flies with white eyes were male and some characteristics are sex-linked
Rosalind Franklin
took x-ray pictures of DNA crystals
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
virus that infects bacteria composed of DNA or RNA core and a protein coat attaches to the surface of the cell and injects its genetic information into it
small circular piece of DNA found in some bacteria have been very useful for DNA transfer has a DNA sequence that helps promote plasmid replication
point mutation
gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
selective breeding
method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Alfred Henry and Martha Chase studied viruses grew viruses in cultures containing radioactive isotopes of phosphorus-32 and sulfur-35 mixed marked viruses with bacteria separated viruses from the bacteria and tested the bacteria for radioactivity nearly all radioactivity in the bacteria was from phosphorus concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA, not protein
photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Barbara McClintock
noble prize found that transposable elements can slip in and out of different locations in DNA jumping genes theory
Human Genome Project
ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA sequence
Watson and Crick
developed the double-helix model of the structure of DNA
DNA fingerprinting
analysis of sections of DNA that have little of no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
genetic engineering
process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
"three bodies" if two copies of an autosomal chromosome fail to separate during meiosis, an individual may be born with three copies of a chromosome example- down syndrome
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
learning based on early experience; one imprinting has occurred, the behavior cannot be changed
reflex arc
sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector that are involved in a quick response to a stimulus
specific chemical messenger that affects the behavior or development of other individuals of the same species
circadian rythyms
behavioral cycles that occur in daily patterns
carbon cycle
biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans mixed biogeochemical processes, such as burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum, store carbon underground human activities, such as mining, cutting, and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
nitrogen cycle
bacteria that live in the soil and on roots of plants, called legumes, convert nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites once these products are available, producers can use them to make proteins consumers eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins when organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia, ammonia may be taken up again by producers other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification- releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again
phosphorus cycle
as the rocks and sediments gradually wear down, phosphate is released on land, some phosphate washes into rivers and streams, where it dissolves phosphate eventually makes its way to the oceans, where it is used by marine mammals when plants absorb phosphate from the soil of from water, the plants bind the phosphate into organic compounds organic phosphate moves through the food web, from producers to consumers, and to the rest of the ecosystem
bond between 2 amino acids
enzyme lock and key
an enzyme has a particular shape, and it fits into a particular shaped molecule
reduction, oxidation, redox
r- when electron is attracted to a molecule o- when electron comes off redox- whole process
Jeremy Rifkin
predicted gene rich and gene poor
when a gene or chromosome gets left out of mitosis or meiosis
chromosome for down syndrome
example of codominance
roan cow
PCR- polymerase chain reaction
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
examples of trisomy
chromosome folds in on itself crossing less likely
like crossing over gene moves onto another chromosome
refers to molecules that turn on and off genes
like deletion instead of deleting gene, it's multiplying, more than you need

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