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Easy 4-6


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4.1 The prevalence of mental DOs in ppl over 65 is:
a. higher than any other age group.
b. lower than any other age group.
c. higher, and incls cogn impairmt.
d. the same as the under 65 population.
4.1 B - Contrary to what may be expected, the prevalence of mental DOs in ppl 65 and older is lower than any other age grp; only cogn. impairmt shows a def. age-assoced inc in incidence.
4.2 Of the following ethnic grps, which grp is not considered a race?
a. Hispanic
b. Native American
c. Af-Am
d. Asian-Am
4.2 A - Hispanics are an ethnic grp like Af-Ams, Asian-Ams, and Native Ams. Unlike these grps, Hispanics are not a specific race. According to the 1998 Census Bureau, the total Hispanic population of the US a/cs for 11% of the total population. 63% are of Mexican origin, 14.4% are of Central and Sth American origin, 10.6% of mainland Puerto Rican origin, 4.2% of Cuban origin, and 7.4% other.
4.4 When wking w/ Af-Am families, Nancy Boyd-Franklin recommends:
a. An ecostructural approach
b. A multisystems approach
c. A matrilineal approach
d. Both a and b
4.4 D - Boyd-Franklin (1989) recommends the use of a multisystems (ecostructural) approach when wking w/ Af-Am families. During both the assessmt and tx processes this approach targets the indiv., the immed. and extended family, nonblood relns and friends, church and other community services.
4.31 J. Berry, who views acculturation as a multidimal construct, wd describe an integed client as one who:
a. Has a low retention of the minority culture.
b. Has high maintenance of the mainstream culture.
c. Rejects the mainstream cultur
4.31 B - Berry conceptualizes acculturation as many models existing on a continuum, w/ the minority culture and the majority or mainstream culture at oppos. poles. Integn wd be displayed by an indiv. who has high retention of the minority culture and high maintenance of the mainstream culture.
4.33 A new prof. is teaching her first class on feminist theory. What is she req'd to do?
a. Present a balanced view of feminist theory vs. other theories.
b. Concentrate solely on feminist theory; it is a given that there are other views of ps
4.33 A - is best choice. While B and D cd both possibly be an option, (A) is more in line with Std 6.03 (a) which deals w/ objectivity: "When engaged in teaching or training, psycs present psycal info accurately and w/ a reasonable deg of objectivity."
4.52 A way to define criterion in regard to deting criterion related validity is that the criterion is:
a. The predr test
b. The validity measure
c. The predictee
d. The content.
4.52 C - To det criterion-related validity, scores on a predr test are correled w/ an o'side criteria. The criteria is that which is being predicted, or the "predictee."
4.56 A quality assurance review wd likely focus on all of the following except
a. tx effectiveness
b. access to tx
c. cost of tx
d. pt satisfaction
4.56 C - In the health care business, quality assurance reviews are conducted by orgs such as HMOs or indep. overseers to review the quality of services provided. Because the cost of services is not dirly reled to their quality, it wd probably not be a focus of a quality assurance review.
4.59 If a child can understand that A is greater than B and B is greater than C, and then understand that as a result, A is greater than C, this is an e.g. of:
a. Inductive reasoning
b. Symbolic thought
c. Deductive reasoning
d. Pre-o
4.59 A - This is e.g. of inductive reasoning, or reasoning from a partic. fact to a general rule. B, symbolic thought, is the understding that one thg can stand for another, C, deductive reasoning, is reasoning from a general law to a partic. case, and D is object permanence, the understding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible.
4.63 Which of the following client's rights are protected in a court of law?
a. A second opinion
b. Tarasoff
c. Right of confidentiality
d. Right to receive medication.
4.63 C - A client's rt to confidentiality is protected by a court of law. The client's rt to keep his/her matters confidential is referred to as privilege. The court also dets exceptions to privilege, such as the Tarasoff Statute.
4.64 Which of these studies wd be considered most unethical today?
a. Milgram's
b. Bandura
c. Zimbardo
d. BF Skinner's study of his own child.
4.64 A - This is a diff. twist on a previous quesion, but the answer is still Milgram's study. You may feel a diff. study is more unethical, but the Ethical Stds are specifically pertinent to Milgram's study. This study involved deception and no debriefing about that deception. Std 615 Deception in Research, addresses this, indicing that:
1. Deception shd not be used in a study unless it is justified by the study's merit, and alt. proced., aren't feasible.
2. Participants are not deceived about signif aspects that wd affect their willingness to participate and
3. Any deception that is an integral part of the design will be explained as early as is feasible and no later than the conclusion of the study.
4.69 A leader shd adopt a "telling style" if:
a. The employee has low ability but high willingness to accept responsibility
b. The employee has high ability but low willingness to accept responsibility
c. The employee's ability t
4.69 D - The "telling style" according to Hersey and Blanchard's (1974) description, is more effective when an employee's ability and willingness to accept responsibility is low. This leadership style involves high task orientation and low relnship orientation. With A, the leader shd adopt the "selling" style - high task orientation and high relnship orientation. With B, the leader shd adopt a "participatory" style - low task orientation and high relnship orientation. With C the leader can use a "delegating" style; both low task and low relnship orientation.
4.71 In Piaget's concrete operational stage the child is able to conserve due to the dvpt of reversibility and decentration. Other achievemts of this stage are:
a. Deferred imitation
b. Object permanence
c. Propositional thought
d. Tr
4.71 D - Other achievemts of the concrete opal stage are transitivity, or the ability to mentally sort objects; and hierarchical classification - the ability to sort objects into classes and subclasses based on similarities and diffs among grps. Deferred imitation and object permanence are achievemts of the sensorimotor stage. Deferred imitation is the ability to imitate an observed act at a later pt in time. Obj permanence is the understding that objects continue to exist even when they are not there. Finally, propositional thought (C) is dvped in the Formal Operational Stage. It is the ability to evaluate the logical validity of verbal assertions w/out having to use real-world circumstances.
4.76 You have a client who does not wt their records released under any circs. The attorney has subpoenaed you. Your best course of action is to:
a. Respond, but don't take the records.
b. Take the records, but don't turn them over.
c. Ign
4.76 A - You shd repsond to the subpoena, but there is no reason to take the records. Since the client does not wt them released you assert the privilege on your client's behalf. Ultimately the matter may be decided by a court of law, but this is the correct beginning action on your part.
4.77 A Caucasian comes to a stage where he does not have racist views. According to Helms, which stage of identity dvpt is this person in?
a. Reintegration
b. Pseudo-Independence
c. Immersion-Emersion
d. Autonomy
4.77 C - Immersion-Emersion. Janet Helms (1984) orig. dvped her White and People of Color Racial Identity Model to try and help resolve interracial tension in cross cultural psychotherapy. She dvped a white racial identity model that reflects abandonmt of racism and the dvpt of a nonracist white identity. At the Immersion-Emerson level of identity dvpt, people embrace their whiteness w/out rejecting members of minority grps and attempt to det how they can feel proud of their own race w/out being racist. In "A" Reintegration, ppl resolve their conflicts by adopting the position that Whites are superior. In Pseudo-Independence, "B", ppl become dissatisfied w/ reintegration and re-examine their beliefs about racial inequalities. In "D", Autonomy, Whites internalize a nonracist white identity and seek out cross-racial interactions.
4.81 What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?
a. A stated professional relnship
b. Signif. neglect
c. Severe damage
d. Sufficient harm
4.81 D - For a successful malpractice suit, According to Behnke, Preis and Bates, in their book, one must have the four "D's" to win a malpractice suit. One must show that there was a DUTY (a prof. relnship), one must show that the duty was not carried out, and one must show, that as a specific result of this, the person suffered damages. Thus, the term "dereliction of a duty directly causing damage." A prof. relnship is assumed under the defn of "having a duty."
4.84 Research about job experience w/ the 4 day workweek suggests that it is correled with:
a. Satisfaction and productivity
b. Absenteeism and satisfaction
c. Productivity only
d. Satisfaction, but not absenteeism or productivity
4.84 B - Research on the effects of the CWW is mixed. Overall, however, productivity is usually unaffected, absenteeism usually declines, and job satisfactions tends to increase, esp. among younger and lower-level employees.
4.88 A woman comes to you who has been put on morphine due to her pain. She is an ex-alcoholic in recovery and does not wt to become addicted to the morphine. She asks your assistance in lowering the dosage. You shd:
a. Work w/ her psychiatrist to l
4.88 D - It is really all right to support your client's idea even if it isn't yours. You wd wt to get a signed release to speak to her psychiatrist and wk w/ them to support your client's choice.
4.90 An infant born prematurely is most likely to eventually dvp:
a. Poor social skills
b. Poor academic perf.
c. Low adult body weight
d. None of the above
4.90 D - An infant born before 37 weeks gestation period is considered premature. Greenburg and Cmic (1988) found that w/ a supportive environmt and approp med attn premature infants w/out signif abnormalities often catch up w/ their peers, in terms of social and cogn. language skills, by 2 or 3 yrs of age. There is no known relnship b/w prematurity and adult body weight.
4.91 Bob, who came from a poor family, was encouraged throughout high school to take vocational classes due to his "low aptitude" scores. Bob ignored this advice and focused on college preparatory courses. After graduating Magna Cum Laude from
4.91 A - While they don't literally have to "burn" the records of Bob's g-mother, overall both requests shd be honored. According to the Buckley Amendmt or the Family Educal Rts and Privacy Act, eligible students after age 18 and their parents have the rt of access to their children's educal records and can challenge any content thereof. Also records that are no longer useful or relev for the students or the educal institution are to be destroyed.
4.95 Dreams occur:
a. Only during REM sleep
b. Only during non-REM sleep
c. During both REM and non-REM sleep
d. Primarily during Stage 1 sleep
4.95 C - The typical sleep cycle begins with Stage One and progresses to Stage Two, Three and Four. This is followed by REM sleep. Initially, it was believed that all dreaming occurred during REM sleep, but it is now known that dreams also occur during non-REM sleep. Dreams during REM sleep are much more vivid and more likely to be remembered when the sleeper awakes.
4.96 Beck identified a no. of cognitive distortions incl. the tendency to focus solely on a detail that is taken out of context. He termed this:
a. Selective abstraction
b. Overgeneralization
c. Personalization
d. Dichotomous thinking
4.96 A - Focusing solely on a detail is an e.g. of selective abstraction. Overgeneralization is abstracting a general rule from one or two sitns and then broadly applying it to other sitns. Personalization is attributing external events to oneself w/out evidence of a causal correlation. Dichotomous thinking is categorizing experiences in one of two extremes.
4.105 Following a closed head injury that causes a signif. concussion, a pt wd most likely display
a. irritability and insomnia
b. aggression and fatigue
c. shifting attn and forgetfulness
d. vertigo and apathy
4.105 C - Concussion can result in any of the sxs listed. However, "C" is best answer due to the words "most likely" in the qn. According to the DSM-IV, Postconcussional DO (which is included in the Appendix on DOs provided for further study), always involves difficulties in attn or memory. It also involves at least 3 of 8 other poss. signs, incl. the 6 identified by choices A, B, and D. In other words, choice C identifies the core req'mts for the DO, while the other choices listed poss. but not req'd signs.
4.106 Which of the following stmts is true about the results of meta-analyses investigating the effectiveness of cog therapy in the tx of depression?
a. Cog therapy is more effective than insight-oriented and interpersonal therapy, but less effectiv
4.106 B - Though some indiv studies have found cogn. therapy to be the most effective tx for depn, the results of meta-analyses (such as the one conducted by the NIMH) indic. that cog therapy, interpersonal therapy, and anti-depressant meds are about equal in efficacy in the tx of depn. All 3 txs are superior to p-dynamic, or insight-oriented therapies.
4.108 Infant intelligence tests are most valid as predrs of future perf for
a. infants who score v. high.
b. infants who score v. low.
c. infants who score near the average.
d. no infants - they have absolutely no correln w/ future p
4.108 B - Overall, infant intelligence tests such as the Bayley Scales of infant Dvpt are poor predrs of adult and even childhd intelligence (though this does not mean they have absolutely no correln w/ future perf, as stated by choice D). However, they are better predrs for babies who score v. low. For this reason, many experts believe that they are most useful as screening devices to identify babies at risk for future dvptal delays or probs.
4.119 Which of the following is a mental health service that HMOs must prov. under federal req'mts?
a. pre- and post-pregnancy counseling
b. psychodynamically oriented p-therapy
c. inpt psychiatric care
d. short-term outpt evaluative
4.119 D - Federal laws regarding qualification for an HMO reqs that the company prov. "short-term (not to exceed 20 visits), outpt evaluative crisis intervention services", and "med tx and referral for alcohol and drug addiction." These are the only qualifications reled to mental health services. Most HMOs prov. cert. addnal services, because doing so reduces their costs in the long-run.
4.123 A pt complains that she cannot stop thinking about killing her child, though she has no intention of doing so. The pt is depressed about these thoughts and occasionally has a drink in an attempt to escape from them, though this attempt is usually u
4.123 C - This person's thought seems to qualify as an obsession. obsessions are recurrent and persis. thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as intrusive and cause marked distress. A person w/ obsessions attempts to ignore, suppress, or neutralize them and recogs that they are a product of one's own mind. REcurrent obsessions or compulsions are the defining feature of OCD. A person w/ this DO may be depressed about it and may use alcohol or other substances in an attempt to neutralize his/her distress.
4.124 Which of the following is the most common fnal DO in the elderly?
a. Delusional DO
b. Depressive DO
c. Dementia
d. Bipolar DO
4.124 B - DSM-III-R distinged b/w organic mental DOs (which have known physiol. cause) from functional DOs, which may or may not have physiol. component, but are not dirly caused by a known physiol factor. The DSM-IV divides what were previously organic DOs into 2 categories: Mental DOS due to GMC and Substance-Induced DOs; DOs that don't fit either are called primary mental DOs. If knew "functional DO", then you wd have eliminated Dementia as it is always either due to effects of GM or substance induced (or in old language, and organice mental DO). Of remaining choices, prevalence of Depressive DOs in elderly is 5-10%, the prevalence of Delusional DO is approx. 4% and prevalence of Bipolar DO is 1%. So "B" is correct.
4.129 Signs of the persy characteristic of social inhibition are usu present
a. at birth
b. by the age of four mths
c. by the age of 9 mths
d. by the time the child attends schl for the 1st time
4.129 B - About 10% of all children are socially inhibited. Typically, these children cling to their parents, are socially timid, and are scared of the unfamiliar. Reliable predrs of social inhibn have been detected in early infancy - as early as ages 2-4 mths. e.g., infants who display high levels of negative affect and motor activity in response to novel stimuli tend to display social inhibn later on in life. These and other findings suggest that inhibn and other persy characteristics reled to basic temperament are stable and have a strong genetic basis.
4.137 A 16-yr old girl is sexually promiscuous and does not practice safe sex. When confronted w/ info about STDs and pregnancy, she states "that cd never happen to me." The girl's beh is characteristic of:
a. adolescent egocentrism
4.137 A - According to Piaget and researchers who have studied his theories, adols are prone to what has been termed "formal operational egocentrism" or "adolescent egocentrism." This is characterized by a no. of beliefs and modes of thking, incl the belief that the world can only become a better place through implemtation of a grand idealistic system, the belief that others are as concerned w/ the adol's beh as the adol him or herself is, and a strong faith in one's own invulnerability and uniqueness.
4.139 An interpersonal therapist who is wking w/ a client suffering from a prolonged grief reaction wd attempt to:
a. connect the person's current grief reaction to losses of signif. others in early childhd.
b. help the client understding how t
4.139 B - Though this is an imprecise description of what an interpersonal therapist wd do, it is best answer. Interpersonal therapists believe that depn is caused and maintained by disturbances in early life, esp. attachmt disturbances. Rather than focusing on the past, however, they focus on the connection b/w the presenting prob and client's current relnships - incl. the current relnship w/ the therapist. Grief reactions are a common focus of interpersonal therapy.
4.147 According to lit reviews on the subject, women who have abortions generally
a. have signif psycal probs reled to guilt and depn.
b. see abortion as a normal process and suffer no probs.
c. experience a level of stress that is similar
4.147 C - According to lit reviews on the subejct, psycal responses to unwtd pregnancies terminated by abortion tend to parallel responses to other life stresses, such as bearing a child. Responses have both positive components, such as relief, as well as negative ocmponents; however, the review suggests that positive components tend to dominate and negative components do not persist. Severe negative reactions are rare; when they do occur, they seem to be reled to other factors (e.g., cultural and religious beliefs, actual and perceived social support, length of gestation before the abortion occurs), rather than the abortion per se.
4.154 According to Anne Cleary's model of test fairness, a job selection test wd be considered unfair if
a. Based on the use of the test, a higher ppn of Caucasians than Af-Ams are chosen for the job.
b. The test has a higher validity coefficie
4.154 C - Under the Cleary model, a test is considered unfair if the slope and/or the y-intercept of the regn lline is diff for one subgrp than for another. The effect of these statistical phenomena is that diffs b/w subgrps on predr scores wd not be reflective of diffs b/w the grps on the criterion. For instance, low scorers in one subgrp might do just as well on the criterion as high scorers in the other subgrp.
4.165 Which of the following item difficy levels maximizes discrimination among test-takers?
a. .10
b. .25
c. .50
d. .90
4.165 C - If a test item has an item difficy level of .50, this means that 50% of examinees answered the item correctly. Therefore, items w/ this difficy level are most useful for discriminating b/w "high scoring" and "low scoring" groups.
4.168 The best way to inc the intra-rater reliability of a test that is subjectively-scored wd be to
a. train raters to pay very close attn to the scoring of the test.
b. have a 2nd set of raters rescore the test.
c. use mutually exclusive
4.168 A - Note that this is about intra-rater reliability, not inter. Asking about how to inc the internal consistency of a rating instrumt. Of choices listed, only one which makes sens is to train raters to pay more attn to what they are doing. If they pay closer attn, they are less likely to score the test inconsistently. Incidentally, mutually exclusive and exhaustive rating categories (C) are useful for incing the inter-rater reliability of a test.
4.172 Brief dynamic therapy is least likely to involve
a. a focus on specific probs
b. an emphasis on restoring the person to a previous level of fning
c. an attempt to engender insight into the unconscious
d. the use of techniques su
4.172 B - Brief dynamic therapy is focused on specific sxs; by contrast, goal of LT p-dynamic therapy is usu. global persy change. These sxs are usu viewed as pathological; in other words, the emphasis is on altering the normal level of fning rather than returning the person to it. (B sounds more like the goal of crisis intervention than that of brief p-therapy). C and D both describe poss. aspects of brief dynamic therapy. Techniques of LT dynamic therapy, such as free assocn and dream interpn, may be used. In addn, there may be an attempt to engender insight into the unconscious, but (unlike as in LT therapy) the pt is left to assimilate this insight on his/her own.
4.176 According to APA's Stds for Educal and Psycal Testing, test results shd be reported
a. only to professionals trained in the interpn of psycal tests
b. using only raw scores
c. using only confidence intervals or %ile bands
d. in
4.176 D - "Those reponsible for testing programs shd prov. appropr interprns when test score info is released to students, parents, legal reps, teachers, or the media. The interpns shd describe in simple language what the test covers, what scores mean, common misinterpns of test scores, and how scores will be used" (Std 15.10). Other stds req that the std error of measuremt be reported so confidence intervals or percentile bands (Choice C) can be constructed; however, the word "only" makes C incorrect.
4.188 In a "split-brain" pt,
a. the pt cannot name objects or comprehend info that is projected solely to the right hemisphere
b. the pt cannot name objects or comprehend info that is projected solely to the left hemisphere
c. bo
4.188 C - A split brain pt is s-one whose corpus callosum has been severed. Since the left hemisphere controls language prodn, these pts are unable to name objects projected to their rt hemisphere because the info can't be transferred from the rt to the left. However, research w/ these pts has demonstrated that the rt hemisphere can comprehend some aspects of language.
5.2 A culturally-encapsulated therapist
a. exhibits a bias that involves interping all of the presenting probs of minority clients as the direct result of cultural factors.
b. has had little or no contact w/ members of minority grps and exhibit
5.2 D - The notion of cultural encapsulation was orig described by Wrenn in 1962. A primary characteristic of a culturally-encapsulated counselor is an acceptance (usu. unconscious) of traditional cultural stereotypes.
5.3 In their discussion of mental health services for Latino clients, Rogler et al. (1987) describe 3 ways to increase the cultural sensitivity of therapy for members of this grp. These methods include all of the following except
a. incorping elemts
5.3 D - Although all of the actions described in the responses could be called "culturally sensitive", only the 1st 3 were described by Rogler and his colleagues, which makes answer D correct.
5.5 From Wolpe's classical conditioning perspective, neurotic depression
a. is a conditioned response that can be alleviated through extinction trials in which the neutral (conditioned) stimulus is repeatedly presented w/out the depression-inducing
5.5 B - Even if you are unfamiliar with Wolpe's explanation of depn, you may have been able to pick the rt answer to this qn as long as you have him assoced w/ systematic desensitization. Wolpe distinged b/w several types of depn. He linked neurotic depn to anxiety and considered systematic desensitization to be an effective tx.
5.10 Michael Rutter, a key figure in field of dvptal p-pathology, notes that parental divorce does not have the same effects on all children. According to Rutter, such diffs are reled to
a. the child's cognitive understding of the causes of the divo
5.10 B - Rutter and others interested in dvptal psychopathology have attempted to identify the factors that a/c for the continuities and discontinuities in child p-pathy. Rutter has focused primarily on variations in social relnships that act as high risk or protective factors.
5.13 A personnel director devises 4 measures to be used as selection techniques for police officers. She plans on using multiple regression to combine the scores on the 4 measures in order to predict an applicant's score on a measure of job perf. You sug
5.13 C - A and B arent' true about multiple regn, and D is incorrect because multiple regn is compensatory and wd be approp if a high score on 1 measure cd compensate for a low score on another measure. Multiple regn isn't the approp technique when the characteristics measured by the diff predrs are noncompensatory.
5.16 In an expt, a psyc ests a conditioned startle response to a flashing red light by pairing presentation of the light w/ a loud noise that naturally elicits a startle reaction. Subseqly, the red light is simult. presented w/ a strong odor just before
5.16 C - Blocking occurs when a CS is presented simultaneously w/ a 2nd stimulus just before the US. Altho it wd seem that the 2nd stimulus shd acq the properties of a CD from this procedure, that's not what happens. Instead, the 2nd stimulus does not produce a conditioned response. This is blocking.
5.17 Feature integration theory predicts that the perception of an object as an entity rather than as a cluster of unreled features depends on:
a. focused attn
b. integed attn
c. selective attn
d. divided attn
5.17 A - Feature integn theory is what it sounds like. It's a theory about how an object's features are integed, and it proposes that focused visual attn is req'd for perception of an object to occur.
5.18 Overlearning wd be most useful when you are trying to
a. learn how to play the violin
b. understd fractal geometry
c. memorize the state capitals
d. learn to solve complicated calculus probs
5.18 C - In general, overlearning (practicing or rehearsing beyond the level of mastery) is good. However, it seems most effective for simple tasks that must be remembered for a long period of time.
5.35 Studies on gender diffs in phys. dvpt suggest that, until about age ____, girls shd be able to compete effectively w/ boys in baseball and other sports.
a. 7
b. 10
c. 12
d. 15
5.35 C - Most phys. diffs b/w boys and girls do not become prominent until puberty. Before puberty, boys and girls are about equal, for instance, in terms of speed and strength, implying that they shd do about equally well in many sports.
5.36 Research on children's early language suggests that a distinction can be made b/w an expressive and referential style. Which of the following is true about the referential style?
a. Children exhibiting a referential style exhibit rapid vocab gr
5.36 A - Only response A describes the referential style; the other responses describe the expressive style.
According to Nelson, referential children used content words and object names to describe their world. Expressive children however, did not use as many object names. Instead, they used their words more "to regulate their social intern w/ adults". Goldberg and rEznick (1990) further noted that "children who adopt a referential style and focus on learning names for thgs appear more likely to show a spurt in lexical acq'n in the latter part of the 2nd yr, as many of the words acq'd during the accelerated periods of vocab growth are object names."
5.37 Which of the following models of leadership provs a "decision tree" to help a leader det whether an autocratic, consultative, or consensual d-making approach is best given the nature of the wk sitn?
a. Fiedler's contingency model
5.37 C - Models involving Fiedler, Hersey and Blanchard, and House don't include a decision-tree. Vroom and Yetton's model does.
5.42 You are trying to recall the facts surrounding a mugging you recently witnessed. According to the notion of state dependence, your recall of these facts will be best if you are in the same _______ when you recall the crime as you were at the time yo
5.42 C - The notion of state dependence predicts that memory is maximized when we are in the same emotional state during learning and recall.
5.50 Practitioners of interpersonal therapy (IPT) describe depn as involving 3 components. One component is interpersonal relns. The other 2 are:
a. cognitions and emotions
b. sx formation and persy
c. sx formation and conseqs of depn
5.50 B - Although interpersonal therapy focuses on social relnships, it does recognize the role of other factors in the dvpt of depn. One factor is early contributors to sxs (which may be p-biological and/or p-dynamic); another is the indiv's persy. Interpersonal thearpy focuses on 2 of these components - i.e., the indiv's interpersonal relnships and sxs (e.g., an antidepressant may be Rxed to alleviate sxs).
5.52 The primary diff b/w AD and Korsakoff's syndroms is that
a. AD primarily affects declarative memory, while Korsakoff's Syndrome affects proced. memory
b. Initially, AD produces anterograde amnesia, while Korsakoff's produces retrograde amn
5.52 C - AD is a type of dementia, which, as defined in DSM-IV involves memory impairmt and other cog deficits. In contrast, Korsakoff's is categorized in DSM as an Amnestic DO, and it is marked by memory loss that may be accompanied by confabulation and unsteady gait and other phys. signs.
5.59 According to House's path-goal theory, the optimal leader style
a. is a democratic one that allows wkers to participate in setting goals and identifying ways for achieving them
b. is the one that emphasizes a task-oriented (vs. person-orie
5.59 C - Path-goal theory predicts that leaders will be most successful when they show followers the path for achieving goals. Path-goal theory is also a contingency theory, which means that it proposes that the best leadership style depends on cert. characteristics of the sitn.
5.79 In the multitrait-multimethod matrix, a low heterotrait-monomethod coefficient wd indicate
a. low convergent validity
b. low divergent validity
c. high convergent validity
d. high divergent validity
5.79 D - Use of a multitrait-multimethod matrix is one method of assessing a test's construct validity. The matrix contains correlns among diff tests that measure both the same and diff traits using similar and diff methodologies. The heterotrait-monomethod coeff, one of the correl. coeffs. that wd appear on this matrix, reflects the correln b/w 2 tests that measure diff traits using similar methods. An e.g. might be the correln b/w a test of depn based on self-report data and a test of anxiety also based on self-report data. If a test has gd divergent validity, this correln wd be low. Divergent validity is the degree to which a test has a low correln w/ other tests that do not measure the same construct. Using the above e.e.g, a test of depn wd have gd divergent validity if it had a low correln w/ other tests that purportedly measure diff traits, such as anxiety. This wd be evidence that the depn test is not measuring traits that are unreled to depn.
5.80 In designing a research study, you take a no. of steps that have the effect of reducing beta. This means that you have reduced the probability of
a. retaining a true null hypothesis
b. retaining a false null hypothesis
c. rejecting a
5.80 B - Beta is the probability of making a Type II error, or of retaining a false null hypothesis. In plain language, it is the probability of failing to detect a true effect.
5.83 In an ABAB design
a. the same subject is admined all txs.
b. diff Ss are admined txs.
c. a tx is admined to one subject across a no. of diff settings.
d. a tx is admined to the same subject for a no. of diff behs.
5.83 A - An ABAB design is a type of single-subject design. It is an e.g. of a reversal design - a baseline measure of a beh is obted (the "A" phase), the beh is again measured after a tx is admined (the "B" phase), the tx is removed or reversed and the beh is again measured, (the 2nd "A"), and the beh is again measured after the tx is re-applied (the 2nd "B"). In other words, the same subject recs all the txs that are applied (actually, the same tx at diff times; thus, the word "all" might be s-what misleading, but A is still best answer). C and D are e.g.s of multiple baseline designs.
5.84 A psyc is conducting research to eval the effectiveness of 3 predr tests of overall mental health he has dvped. He administers the predrs to 35 indivs randomly chosen from the population of interest and obts a squared multiple correlation coefficien
5.84 C - Princ. behing this qn is that the greater the range of scores in both the predrs and the criterion, the higher the validity coeff will be. If you admin. the predcrs to 70 ppl as opposed to 35, you are likely to get a s-what greater range of scores in the former case. Therefore, you'll get a somewhat higher correl coeff. D, a much higher correl coeff is not gd answer. Inc'ing the range of scores can only do so much for your correln coeff, esp. if you already have a reasonably representative sample to begin w/. Incing the sample size from 35 to 70, for example, will not turn a poor set of predrs into a gd one.
Choice A is shrinkage, the correl coeff wd be smaller. Shrinkage, however, is assoced w/ DEVELOPMT of predr or set of predrs. It occurs when, based on research w/ one sample, items for a predr are chosen from a lger poor, and the newly dvped predr is then tested on a 2nd sample. The correl coeff for the 2nd sample is likely to be smaller, because predr was "tailor made" for the first sample. In this qn, however, the predrs are not in the process of dvpt, and the first grp of 35 ppl is not a validation sample (i.e., a sample of ppl used to det which items to retain for the final version of the test).
5.89 Research in the 1960s and 1970s found that, in schl settings, teachers tend to pay more attn to boys than to girls. More recent research has suggested that this finding was due to
a. a bias against girls on the part of many teachers.
b. me
5.89 D - A no. of older studies showed that, in mixed gender classrooms, boys rec more attn from teachers than girls. More recent research has detected this diff but has found that it is much less dramatic than had been claimed in the past. According to analyses of results of some of the recent research, the finding is due to the fact that boys display a higher ppn of learning and beh difficulties, rather than any gender bias on the part of teachers. Note that the results of research are not entirely in accord; the bulk of the research, however, does confirm the finding that boys rec more attn than girls.
5.93 You conduct a study designed to assess the effectiveness of p-therapy in the tx of depn. You wk w/ 2 grps, one of which recs the therapy and one which is an attention-only control group. All of your Ss are hospitalized inpts; thus, all of them are e
5.93 C - Note that you are being asked for the biggest threat to external validity, not internal validity. Therefore, you can rule out regn to the mean, which is generally considered threat to internal validity (regn probably wdn't threaten internal validity here since both grps appear to be equiv in terms of their baseline depn levels).
External validity refers to the generalizability of research results. An "intern b/w selection and tx" means that the effect of a tx may not generalize to other members of the target population who differ in some way from the research Ss. e.g., in this case, it's poss. that your therapy is effective for indivs who are highly depressed, but wd not have any effect on indivs who are mod. depressed.
5.97 A teacher finds out that if she yells at a disruptive boy in class, he will calm down for a few mins. Over time, her yelling becomes louder and more frequent. Which of the following stms best describes, in behal terms, what is happening in this sitn
5.97 B - In behal terms, the term "positive" means that a stimulus is applied. The stimulus applied here is yelling. And punishmt means that the stimulus has the effect of reducing a beh. In this case, the yelling has the effect of temporarily reducing the boy's disruptiveness, so it is punishmt. The qn illustrates a disadv of punishmt - the recipient becomes habituated (which just means he/she gets used to it) and it is necessary to keep incing the intensity of the punishmt for it to be effective.
5.106 Which of the following is either a sx of or a req'mt for the DSM-IV dx of Separation Anxiety DO?
a. onset before the age of 2.5
b. fear that the attachmt figure will die
c. sxs do not persist after the age of 18
d. need for cons
5.106 B - Separation anxiety DO involves dvptally inapprop and excessive anxiety concerning sepn from hm or from those to whom the indiv is attached. For sx to be made, 3 signs or sxs must be present, one of which is excessive worry that harm will befall a major attachmt figure. Thus, B is best answer. Contrary to choice A, the onset of the DO need not be before the age of 2.5; in fact, separation anxiety in infancy is considered to be dvptally approp. Choice C may have been more diffic to eliminate. Although a dx of Sepn Anxiety DO reqs onset before age 18, sxs may persist after 18. An excessive need for attn (D) is a commonly assoced feature of this DO, but not core sx.
5.121 Which of the following interventions wd most likely be employed by a family therapist whose wk is based on Minuchin's structural family therapy?
a. enactmt, giving homewk, making a family map
b. taking a family hx, making a genogram, join
5.121 A - Minuchin's structural family therapy focuses on modifying aspects of the family structure (e.g., rules, boundaries, coalitions) that underlie family dysfn. Of the choices, only A contains 3 interventions typical of struct. fam therapy. Enactmts are role plays that Minuchin often used to evaluate and modify the family struct; h/w is commonly assigned as a means of bringing about concrete change in the family's beh; and family maps, or diagrams of the family's boundaries, are often constructed to help families and the therapist understd the family structure.
B, C, and D, all incl an intervention that focuses on the family's past (either taking hx or examining multigenerational transmission processes). However, struct. fam therapy tends to focus on family's present fning.
5.122 Which of the following best describes the purpose of reframing in family therapy?
a. It is a paradoxical technique designed to harness the family's resistance in the service of positive behal change.
b. It is designed to inc the family's
5.122 B - Reframing is a technique of fam therapy, esp. structural and strategic family therapy. It involves relabeling or redefining a prob beh in order to get the fam to see it in a new light. e.g., a therapist might tell a fam that a child who freqly "talks back" is expressing insecurity and the need for love, rather than anger and disrespect. The purpose of reframing is usu. to inc the family's compliance w/ tx. In the e.g. given, reframing might inc the fam members' willingness to make changes in their own beh, rather than focusing only on the identified pt.
5.129 According to DSM-IV, pts who meet some but not all of the criteria for a partic dx can still be assigned that dx. This reflects the fact that
a. DSM-IV relies on a dimal rather than a categorical approach to dx.
b. DSM-IV relies on a cate
5.129 B - DSM-IV uses a categ. approach to dx. This means that mental DOs are divided into types based on criteria sets w/ defining features. An alternative to the categorical approach wd be a dimal approach, which wd involve quantifying pts' sxs based on their severity. Some have suggested that the categ. approach is inapprop for dx of mental DOs because it misleadingly suggests that the categories of DOs and indivs w/in the same category are homogeneous in all relev ways. To prov. some deg of compensation for these ltations, DSM-IV dxes often incl polythetic criteria set, which means that, for a dx to be made, a person may present w/ some but not all of the dxic criteria. In addn, DSM-IV reminds the clinician to incl other info besides dxes in eval reports.
5.131 Research investigating the relnship b/w sexual abuse in childhd and the dvpt of Bulimia Nervosa in adulthd has found
a. the same rate as in the general population
b. a higher rate for children who were sexually abused
c. no signif. r
5.131 B - Although some research suggests that there is no relnship b/w sexual abuse and Bulimia and other Eating DOs, we have reviewed more recent research that suggests that children who are sexually abused are more at risk.
5.135 A child constantly argues w/ authy figures, loses his temper easily, breaks rules both at hm, and in schl, and often gets into phys. fights. The most accurate dx wd be
a. ODD
b. Conduct DO
d. Pervasive Dvptal DO
5.135 A - The issue here is the diff'al dx between ODD and Conduct DO. The diff'al is that a child w/ the dx of ODD does not meet the threshld of Conduct DO, as is the case here. To exceed this threshld and to meet the criteria for Conduct DO, more severe antisocial beh patterns (at least 3) than what is described here, such as stealing, running away from hm, fire-setting, truancy, and the like, wd be necessary. Conduct DO is synonymous w/ antisocial beh. Fighting and being negativistic and argumentative don't by themselves define a Conduct DOed child. Hence, a better dx here is ODD.
5.139 To reduce a child's aggressive beh, the best approach is to
a. punish the aggression consisly and harshly
b. use diff'al reinforcemt of alternative behs
c. identify the conseqs of the beh and alternatives to it
d. have the child
5.139 C - There are a variety of approaches to the tx of aggression in children; the cogn-behal approach is probably most common. In children who are older, or dvptally advanced enough to understd, cogn approaches tend to focus on helping the person accurately interpret external cues, so that he/she does not respond inapprop w/ aggression. In younger children, teh goal is often to identify the child's goals, the negative conseqs of using aggression to meet those goals, and alternatives to aggression. The other choices are not as likely t be helpful; consis. discipline is gd, but contrary to choice A, overly harsh discipline can serve to inc the child's aggression. Reinforcemt for alternative behs is not a proven method of dirly addressing aggression. And the notion that aggression is s-th that can be released thru venting it on a safe target (or, watching it on TV) has not been supported - apparently, engaging in agg beh only leads to more of the same.
5.144 For women in general, the typical pattern of depn and dysfnal phys. sxs accompanying a menstrual cycle is that
a. there is no typical pattern
b. the sxs occur shortly before and terminate shortly after the onset of menses.
c. the sxs
5.144 A - Key words in this qn were "for women in general." YOu had to know that PMS is actually NOT typical of most women. While it is not uncommon for women to have mild psycal sxs during the latter part of the luteal phase, there is no specific pattern typical of most women. If the qn were about women who do suffer from PMS, the answer wd be B.
5.146 Current research indics that signif diffs in math achievemt b/w boys and girls occur for
a. both grades and SAT scores.
b. grades but not for SAT scores.
c. SAT scores but not for grades.
d. for neither grades nor SAT scores.
5.146 C - There are signif diffs in SAT math scores for boys and girls, w/ boys having higher scores. But diffs b/w boys and girls do not occur in high schl or college grades.
5.150 Theories on leadership that use the concepts of "initiating structure" and "consideration" diff'ate task-oriented from relnship-oriented leadership styles, w/ the effective leader being flexible enough to use either one deping o
5.150 B - Focusing on relnships wd be too much for immature grp to handle. Then, as grp matures, it shd focus on relnships, and once it has reached maturity, the leader can dec the importance of relnships and allow the grp to take over most responsibilities on its own.
5.157 A 35-year old woman consults w/ you at the request of her gynecologist. She is pregnant and the gynecologist suggested an amniocentesis. She is extremely nervous about the procedure. Your most approp recommendation is to
a. clarify the source
5.157 A - As w/ any pt or client, you need to understd the basis of anxiety. She cd be anxious for any no. of reasons you don't know about yet. The best answer then is to try to understd what she's reacting to. Maybe it's the risk of losing the fetus, or the prospect of finding out there's some abnormality. Once you more fully understd the source of the anxiety, you're better able to make a recommendation for intervention.
5.158 A 14-yr old is brought to your office. He does not wt to be there. His mother notes that they are referred by the schl. The only presenting complaint is that his grades are much poorer than last yr. Your eval indics no signif other problematic area
5.158 C - Practical, and often realistic, prob. You have 14 year old who doesn't wt to come to you. You have a referral from the schl that his grades are going down. YOu made assessmt that there doesn't appear, now anyway, to be any psychiatric DO. No need to suggest tx since he doesn't wt to come see you. You've found no probs. You wdn't continue an assessmt since, from the info given, you already concluded that there isn't much psycal conflict present. You cd do nothing, telling him to come back to you if things get worse. Another possibility is presented as a choice is to explore educal intervention, such as talking to teachers to investig. how his schl environmt might be optimized. So you cd certly propose intervening w/ the schl. And b/w suggesting this, and doing nothing, we'd go w/ exploring a schl-based intervention.
5.162 You see a client sho has an episodic drinking prob. He has been arrested twice for driving under the influence, and has had difficys as a result of alcohol. He notes that he can go weeks w/out drinking and in fact he has not had alcohol in 2 weeks.
5.162 B - Clues in qn were that he's dependent on alcohol, but that he can go for periods w/out it. In fact, he's been abstinent for the past 2 weeks or so. We assume that this is true. Hence, you wdn't need to suggest a detox prog. However, referring him for an intensive tx prog, along w/ AA, is approp. The man is seriously alcoholic and needs immediate and intensive tx. And almost every tx prog in Nth America encourages the use of AA and is modeled on the 12-step program. At same time, there are a no. of indicators that inpt tx is not req'd.
5.167 From an orgal sys approach, positive feedback is most useful as an intervention in order to
a. prov info which helps plan for corrective actions.
b. reinfoce adaptive responses.
c. extinguish maladaptive orgal interns.
d. est pr
5.167 A - In any system, feedback is useful to make corrections. Even our nervous sys makes use of this phenomenon: as your body temp rises on a cold a.m., you stop shivering. Likewise w/ institutions and orgs. This qn asks about positive feedback which, in systems terminology, refers to info that encourages diruption from status quo. In orgal consulting and family therapy, positive feedback is used to correct or change a pattern; in response to positive feedback the sys deviates from homeostasis, or the status quo. This qn is not about reinforcing other patterns or extinging maladaptive patterns, as 2 of the choices indicate. These terms are reled to behal learning theory, not systems theory.
5.170 The best measure of central tendency to use when there are a fair no. of outliers in both the positive and negative direction is the
a. z-score
b. median
c. mode
d. mean
5.170 D - Outliers will pull the arithmetic average (i.e., the mean) away from the middle and toward the outliers. Hence, w/ skewed distribns, in which most of the outliers are in one direction, the median is a better measure of central tendency. That's a usual answer, but here, you have fair no. of outliers at both positive and negative ends. Therefore, the outliers will pull the mean in both directions simult. and sort of cancel each other out. In this sitn, then, the mean, the most sensitive measure, wd still be the better measure of central tendency.
5.178 Many ppl converge at a bus stopevery day just before 12 noon when the bus is scheduled to arrive. The main positive reinforcer in this e.g. is the
a. sight of the other passengers waiting.
b. arrival of the bus.
c. bus stop itself.
5.178 B - The arrival of the bus rewards the ppl for their "coming-to-the-bus-stop" beh by transporting them toward their final destination. Seeing other waiting passengers is incorrect because, altho it might be slightly rewarding, it wd be accidental. Seeing other passengers wd not help any of these ppl get closer to their implied goal of reaching a specific destination by bus. And, the other 2 alternatives also do not move passengers closer to their goal.
5.184 A psychologist is consulted by the parents of a child who was referred by a pediatrician for eval. During the interview w/ the parents, they report the girl suffered a severe head injury which they haven't told the pediatrician about. Assuming appr
5.184 B - This qn looks like one on confidentiality, but, it's more about professional relnships. You're told that all consents have been obted, so the confid. issue was already addressed. Qn is "What shd the psyc do?" Since we're all here to help the pt, the most approp thg to do is to let the pediatrician know about your findings. You wd call (probably call rather than write since calling is quicker) the pediatrician and report your findings. It was the pediatrician who made the referral in the 1st place, and you have the parents' consent.
5.196 Which one is best termed "instrumtal" aggression?
a. bombing an Iraqi factory
b. the My Lai massacre in Vietnam
c. angrily slapping a static-filled TV set
d. watching a violent TV show
5.196 A - The 2 types of aggression are hostile (arising out of emotions) and instrumtal (as a means to an end). Eliminate D, which is not aggression at all. Eliminate C, which is emotional. B/w the 2 poss. answers - A and B - B is less so because the My Lai massacre was viewed as unnecessary and it likely involved stronger emotions than a bomber on a mission, who thinks in terms of targets useful to stop the enemy. If you did not know what the My Lai massacre was, the word "massacre" might have clued you in to the fact that the aggression it entailed probably did not serve any useful purpose.
6.3 On the Halstead-Reitan, the Impairmt Index is used as a measure of brain damage and
a. reps the examinee's mean score on the relev subtests.
b. is derived from the no. of subtests on which the examinee scored below the criterion score.
6.3 B - The Impairmt Index is calculated by adding the no. of subtests on which the examinee scored below the cutoff and dividing the sum by the total no. of subtests. (Orig, 10 subtests were used; some experts now recommend incl. only 7.) The higher the Impairmt Index, the greater the likelihd of brain damage.
6.6 Behal txs for depn focus on incing pleasurable activities and/or
a. flooding.
b. social skills training.
c. overcorrection.
d. self-instructional training.
6.6 B - Behal explanations for depn focus on the role of too little reinforcemt and too much punishmt. Behal interventions attempt to reverse this sitn by, e.g., helping clients dvpt better social skills so that they will have more pleasurable social interns.
6.7 In the last 2 decades, the greatest inc in suicide rates has been among those
a. under the age of 15
b. aged 15 to 24
c. aged 35 to 44
d. aged 65 to 74
6.7 B - While suicide rates have been inc'ing for adolescents and young adults and for older adults, the inc is greatest for the younger-aged group.
6.8 Kohlberg's theory of moral dvpt focuses on moral reasoning. W/ regard to the linkage b/w moral reasoning and moral action, Kohlberg wd most likely agree w/ which of the following?
a. There is a direct, one-to-one link b/w moral reasoning and beh
6.8 D - Kohlberg believed there is a link b/w moral reasoning and moral action but felt that the correspondence was greatest at the higher stages of moral reasoning.
6.10 Kohlberg's theory of moral dvpt is based on the assumption that progress thru his hypothesized stages is reled to
a. changes in social perspective
b. changes in self-concept.
c. socioemotional dvpt.
d. identity dvpt.
6.10 A - Kohlberg believed that the 3 levels of moral reasoning reflect diff levels of cog dvpt, which encompasses changes in social perspective-taking. At the conventional level, the person views and indiv as a member of society and bases his/her moral judgmts on that conceptualization.
6.12 Recent literature cfing leadership and mgmt has identified several similarities and diffs. Which of the following set of characteristics is more critical for today's leaders than for mgers?
a. rational, persistent, and tough-minded.
b. pro
6.12 D - A topic of recent interest in the I/O literature is the diff b/w leaders and mgers. Characteristics that are considered partic. important for leaders incl: visionary, creative, flexible, inspiring, courageous, and independent.
6.21 Dementia due to Head Trauma
a. is usu. progressive in cases of mod to sev trauma.
b. is usu. progressive only in cases of repeated head trauma.
c. unlike other forms of Dementia, does not usu. involve disturbances in exec fns.
6.21 B - As described in DSM-IV, Dementia due to Head Trauma is usu. nonprogressive when it is the result of a single head trauma. If it is progressive, this usu indics a superimposed condition (e.g., hydrocephalus).
6.23 In addn to the Vocab subtest, which of the following Wechsler subtests are least susceptible to brain damage, and therefore, useful for assessing premorbid intelligence?
a. Similarities and Pic Completion
b. Info and Pic Completion
6.23 B - Although scores on the Vocab, Info, and Pic Completion subtests can be suppressed by certain types of brain injury, they are considered to be most resistant to brain injury and therefore, the best indicators of premorbid intelligence.
6.27 Therapists who become sexually involved w/ their clients
a. usu do so because they believe they are in love w/ the client as a result of the client's unique and desirable characteristics.
b. usu do so as a result of a lack of experience an
6.27 C - The experts generally agree that therapists who have sexual relnships w/ their clients are not only exhibiting poor judgmt but are also usu. suffering from some type of impairmt, often reled to boundary issues or unfulfilled needs.
6.32 Research investigating methods for txing Dysthymia suggest that
a. interpersonal therapy is superior to CBT in terms of both short- and long-term effects.
b. CBT is superior to interpersonal therapy in terms of both short- and long-term ef
6.32 C - The research on tx for Dysthymia is pretty scarce but there are a few studies that have shown that IPT and CBT are both effective, altho not quite as effective as they are for Major Depn.
6.33 When dvping a tx plan for a client w/ a Specific Phobia, it is important to keep in mind that
a. exposure in vivo and exposure in imagination are about equally effective as long as exposure sessions are sufficiently long in duration.
b. th
6.33 C - Exposure is currently considered the best intervention for most (if not all) Anxiety DOs. However, the best way of exposing clients to stimuli that elicit anxiety depends on the partic. DO. For Specific Phobia, brief in vivo exposure is effective for many clients, and adding a cog component usu. does not improve the effects of the intervention substantially.
6.35 Studies on the effectiveness of training for improving the cogn. skills of older ppl who have already experienced normal age-reled declines have found that training
a. is useful for verbal but not for nonverbal skills.
b. is useful for non
6.35 C - Results of the Seattle Training Study not only demonstrated that behal interventions can remediate verbal and nonverbal skills (e.g., inductive reasoning, spatial orientation) in elderly adults but, for about 40% of participants, raise these skills to pre-decline levels.
6.37 Which of the following is not true about members of self-directed wk teams?
a. Each member of a self-directed team has unique, specialized wks skills to contrib. to the grp product.
b. Members plan the grp's wk processes and set the grp's
6.37 A - Self directed wk teams are self-directed; i.e., they det their own goals, plan their own wk processes, and may even hire their own replacemts. A distinging characteristic of self-directed wk teams is that members are generalists (vs. specialists), and each member has (or learns) a broad range of skills. A poss. downside of self-directed wk teams is that they are assoced w/ higher absenteeism than more traditional wk grps.
6.42 The discrimination hypothesis, frustration theory, and sequential theory are alternative explanations for the reason why
a. organisms exhibit exptal neurosis when presented w/ diffic discriminations during classical conditioning trials.
6.42 C - These theories are all explanations for the "partial reinforcemt effect."
6.47 In females, the gonadotrophic hormones are released by the ________ on a regular cycle.
a. hypothalamus
b. pituitary gland
c. gonads
d. adrenal gonads
6.47 B - The gonadotrpic hormones are the same in males and females but they stimulate the gonads to release their own hormones (estrogen in females, androgens in males). The gonadotropic hormones are released by the pituitary gland.
6.52 In aversive counterconditioning, when the US is repeatedly presented just b4 the CS, you wd expect the client to _____ for the US.
a. quickly exhibit a desirable CR.
b. quickly exhibit the loss of an undesirable CR.
c. exhibit no chan
6.52 D - If you present the US before the CS, you are doing "backwards" conditioning. In aversive counterconditioning, backwards conditioning cd lead to a malpractice suit since the client will now exhibit the undesirable target response to the US (e.g., a client w/ a shoe fetish will become sexually aroused when he recs an electric shock). Note that here we are focusing on the US, not the CS. Typically, when we discuss backwards conditioning, we mention that it is not effective; in other words, the CS does not elicit a CR. However, in this qn, we are focusing on the US (altho it is not obvious from the wording). When we apply aversive counterconditioning in a backwards conditioning paradigm, the US (shock) may become paired w/ a new response (sexual arousal).
6.53 In a study, Ss are asked to memorize a list of 12 unreled words. After a brief period of time, they are asked to count backwards from 100 and are then tested on the word list. These Ss are
a. the exptal Ss in a study on retroactive inteference.
6.53 B - Knowing the diff b/w retroactive and proactive interference wd have helped to narrow choices to A and B. (In retroactive interference subseq learning interferes w/ prev learning). In studies on retroactive interference, exptal Ss learn material similar to the orig list, while control Ss engage in a dissimilar activity (e.g., counting backwards) that keeps them from rehearsing the list.
6.57 When a pregnant woman drinks mod. amts of alcohol during pregnancy, the child may exhibit "fetal alcohol effects." In comparison to the full-scale fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), fetal alcohol effects
a. are less sev. than those assoced
6.57 C - Diff authors define fetal alcohol effects diffly. All seem to agree that fetal alcohol effects are less sev than the sxs of fetal alcohol syndrome, but are also lgely irreversible. Some describe fetal alcohol effects as involving cog and behal sxs but not the phys. defects (e.g., facial abnormalities and growth retardation) that the full-scale syndrome involves.
6.66 According to Otto Kernberg, the central dvptal issue in Borderline Persy DO is
a. a traumatic experience in early childhood.
b. fears of abandonmt.
c. aggressive impulses.
d. over-gratification of infantile needs for love and at
6.66 C - There have been a no. of theories re the etiology of Borderline Persy DO. According to Kernberg, the borderline defensive structure emerges dvptally to protect the child from intrapsychic conflict caused by the child's aggressive impulses. Borderline defenses such as splitting, idealization, and projective identification serve to protect against the indiv's anxiety about destroying his/her gd self- and object-representations. This anxiety is caused by aggressive impulses.
6.72 A person who takes the MMPI-2 obts a score of 62 on the depn scale. This means that
a. the person is probably clin. depressed.
b. the test results are not valid.
c. the person's score is 1.2 std dev units above the mean.
d. the p
6.72 C - A T-score is a stdized score, which means it indics how many std dev units a given raw score is above or below the mean. The T-score distribn has a mean of 50 and a std dev of 10. This means that a score of 62 - 12 T-score pts above the mean - is 1.2 std devs above the mean, since 10 X 1.2 is 12.
6.73 In industrial settings, admin. of a trainability test wd be done for the purposes of deting whether
a. the examinee is likely to do well on the job.
b. the examinee is likely to do well on the job sample.
c. the examinee will be satis
6.73 B - A trainability test is designed to det whether or not potal employees are suitable for training. It is not designed to be dirly predictive of how well the person will do on the job itself. Instead, it wd more dirly indic how well the person wd do on a job sample, which is likely to be a part of the training sessions. In fact, trainability tests typically incl. job samples and are described as a type of job sample.
6.83 According to Kohlberg, a person at the highest level of moral dvpt is primarily guided in moral reasoning by
a. indiv deted stds of morality.
b. democratically deted laws.
c. prevailing norms and stds of beh in his/her society.
6.83 A - Kohlberg's theory of moral dvpt incls 6 stages. In the 6th, or highest stage of dvpt, morally correct action is defined by self-chosen ethical principles that are pereceived as universal and transcending legal stds. Not everybody reaches this highest level of moral dvpt.
6.88 All of the following are true regarding the relnship b/w aging and memory, except
a. observed age-reled cog and memory declines are believed to be due to artifacts of intelligence tests and experience, rather than physiol. changes.
b. the
6.88 A - Few, if any experts believe that age-reled declines in cogn and esp. memory are solely reled to artifccts of experience or testing. These declines have been observed again and again across diff cultures and diff tests. Certly, experience and test error can a/c for some deg of observed decline, but the gen. accepted conclusion is that these declines are real and reflect true neuropsychological changes. B, C, and D are true stms about age-reled decline in cogn and memory.
6.91 Which of the following wd be used to det the probab. that examinees of diff ability levels are able to answer a partic. test item correctly?
a. criterion-reled validity coeff.
b. item discrimination index
c. item difficy index
6.91 D - Item characteristic curves (ICCs), which are assoced w/ item response theory, are graphs that depict indiv test items in terms of the % of indivs in diff ability grps who answered the item correctly. e.g., an ICC for an indiv test item might show that 80% of ppl in the highest ability grp, 40% of ppl in the middle ability grp, and 5% of ppl in the lowest ability grp answered the item correctly. Altho costly to derive, ICCs prov much info about indiv test items, incl their difficy, discriminability, and probab that the item will be guessed correctly.
6.97 According to Lenore Walker, which of the following best describes the dynamic that keeps battered women "hooked" into their relnship w/ the batterer?
a. Due to having grown up in an abusive family, the victim believes that battering i
6.97 B - Lenore Walker describes a cycle of violence that involves 3 stages: tension bldg, acute battering incident, and loving contrition. According to Walker, most of the benefits of the relnship occur in the 3rd stage, when the batterer offers apologies, assurances that the attacks will never happen again, and declarations of love. The relnship tends to remain stable when the balance b/w the costs of the abuse and the benefits of the relnship are fairly similar. As violence escalates, the relnship becomes more unstable, and the man escalates his charming beh in an attempt to restore stability.
6.102 As a mgmt consultant for a coroporation, a psyc devises a way for employees wking in grps to complete their wk. The psyc divides the employees into 2 teams. Each team has to complete a set of tasks, and all grp members are free to wk on any or all
6.102 A - In the lit. on psyc of grps, a distinction b/w additive, conjunctive, disjunctive, and compensatory tasks is s-times made. Additive tasks permit the addn of indiv efforts so that the outcome is a combo of indiv contribns. This is the type of task described by the qn: The combined efforts of all grp members will det if the tasks are completed and team members rec a bonus. Let's briefly go thru the other type of tasks: On conjunctive tasks, everyone must achieve a given goal in order for the task to be complete. As a result, task perf. deps on the perf. of the least competent grp member. On disjunctive tasks, the grp must choose one of many alt. ways to do the task. Thus, perf. on a task deps on the perf. of the most competent grp member, because if one person can complete the task, the task gets completed. Finally, on compensatory tasks, the average perf. of all grp members reps the grp's product.
6.106 All of the following stms are true of both feminist therapy and non-sexist therapy, except
a. they both attempt to equalize power b/w the therapist and the pt.
b. they both view social and political change as a goal of therapy.
c. th
6.106 B - Feminist therapy and non-sexist therapy are v. similar. The maj diff b/w the 2 is that feminist therapy explicitly incorps and promotes feminist values. In other words, it is more political than non-sexist therapy and, unlike non-sexist therapy, views political change as a therapy goal.
6.117 A psyc was asked to categorize clients according to the presence of a DO. Among the low risk sample, 8 out of 80 were misclassified. Among the high risk sample, 10 out of 20 were misclassified. The % of false positives is
a. 10%
b. 8%
6.117 B - Presence of a DO is the predr and that the risk level is the criterion. Another hint is that "misclassified" in the qn refers to those whom the test was wrong about, and that a "false positive" is s-one who is wrongly identified as having a partic. characteristic. Thus, in this case, a false positive wd be s-one who is falsely identified as being at high risk (i.e., positive). So this tells us we need to lk at the no. of ppl in the low risk grp who were misclassified (i.e., wrongly identified as high-risk); in this case, it is 8 of 100 total test-takers, or 8%
6.123 Evidence of genetic etiological influences is strongest for which of the following DOs?
a. Avoidant Persy DO
b. Dependent Persy DO
c. Borderline Persy DO
d. Antisocial Persy DO
6.123 D - Most experts believe that there is probably some genetic influence on most Persy DOs, if for no other reason that there is some genetic influence on most aspects of persy in general. However, evid. of a genetic basis for Antisocial Persy DO is well-ested - prevalence rates are 5 to 10 times higher in indivs w/ first-deg relatives w/ the DO, cfed to the general poopulation. There is also strong evidence of a genetic component in Schizoid, Schizotypal, and Paranoid Persy DOs.
6.124 Which of the following methods of esting a test's reliability is, all other thgs being equal, likely to be lowest?
a. split-half
b. Cronbach's alpha
c. alternate forms
d. test-retest
6.124 C - Alternate forms coeff. is considered by many to be the best reliability coeff to use when practical. Everythg else being equal, it is also likely to have a lower magnitude than the other types of reliability coeffs. the reason for this is similar to the reason why it is considered the best one to use. To obt an alternate forms coeff, one must administer 2 forms of the same test to a grp of examinees, and correlate scores on the 2 forms. The 2 forms of the test are admined at diff times and (because they are diff forms) contain diff items or content. In other words, there are 2 sources of error (or factors that cd lower the coeff) for the alt. forms coeff: the time interval and diff content (in technical terms, these sources of error are referred to respectively as "time sampling" and "content sampling"). The alt forms coeff is considered the best reliability coeff by many because for it to be high, the test must demonstrate consistency across both time interval and diff content.
6.131 Positive and negative life events are likely to have which of the following types of effect on a person's sense of satisfaction and well-being?
a. neither short-term nor long-term effects
b. short-term but not long-term effects
c. lo
6.131 B - Research suggests that pos. and neg. life events can create great joy or distress but don't really affect a person's long-term sense of satisfaction and well-being. Only recent life-events seem to influence a person's well-being, and this effect drops off in about 3 mths. For example, lottery winners have not been found to be signifly happier than non-winners.
6.138 A family therapist who uses anecdotes from her own family to emphasize similarities w/ the client family is doing which of the following?
a. reframing
b. traingulating
c. diffusing boundaries
d. joining
6.138 D - Joining, a technique used by structural family therapists, involves taking steps to become a family insider by, among other thgs, assumiong the same type of commun. style, sharing personal stories, etc.
6.139 A signif. finding for a one-way ANOVA indics that the
a. grp means were different
b. sample means were different
c. population means were different
d. within-grp variance was different
6.139 C - We use stats tests to make inferences about a population. So if we have signif. results, we assume that this reps what happens in the real world - that is, in the population.
6.150 As opposed to industrial psychology, the approach of engineering psyc is to fit the
a. job to the wker.
b. wker to the job.
c. job to the org.
d. wker to the org.
6.150 A - The engineering psyc tends to examine the factors making up the job and how these impact the wker. The job elemts, from such thgs as the illumination in the plant to the wk rate, are manipulated to maximize the productive wk of the employee. Fitting the wker to the job (e.g., hiring better ppl) is a fn of personnel psyc. By contrast, the engineering psyc wks w/ the job elemts and designs the most productive environmt for the wker hired.
6.153 For a DV measure, which of the following wd be the smallest?
a. population variance
b. sample variance
c. sample mean distribn variance
d. residual variance
6.153 C - The sample mean distribn consists of sample means obted from many diff equally-sized samples of the same population. The variance (i.e., dispersion, or variability) of this distribn is smaller than the variances of scores collected from 1 sample or the scores of the entire population.
6.162 According to current research, the most predictive variable for adult IQ scores among infant responses wd be
a. score on the Bayley Scale of Infant Dvpt.
b. score on the Gesell Dvpt Schedule.
c. attn to a visual recogn task.
6.162 C - While std dvptal scales don't predict later IQ scores, a baby's responses to a vis. attn task do. How much time it takes the baby to assimilate a novel stimulus is mod. predictive of later IQ scores since, it is hypothesized, the mental fning involved is similar.
6.167 A psyc has been txing a female pt for almost a yr. She entered tx following a divorce, the result of which was her loss of custody of her 2 children. During the course of tx, she has shown marked gains in her ability to care for herself, has stabil
6.167 B - The Specialty Guidelines state that a psyc cd, when approp, actively intervene on behalf of clients. Becoming an advocate for your pt, when approp, is not the same thg as entering into a multiple relnship, esp if it involves truthfully presenting the facts about the client's mental state.
6.169 Research investigating risk factors in obstetric outcome and neonatal status due to maternal behs indic a strong assocn w/
a. alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and maternal distress.
b. cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption but
6.169 B - Ingestion of drugs or alcohol def. has been found to affect neonatal status, but not so much for mother's anxiety level. High levels of maternal distress can cause poor outcome in some cases, but the relnship is not nearly as strong as it is for maternal alcohol or cigarette use.
6.170 The variable most dirly assoced w/ a need for personal space is
a. education
b. sex
c. income
d. cultural background
6.170 D - Altho some studies suggest that cultural diffs in the need for personal space are not as great as once believed, this is still best answer. For instance, research has illustrated that adult Americans generally req more personal space than adults in other cultures.
6.180 In romantic pairing sitns, ppl tend to seek as partners one who is most
a. similar in attractiveness.
b. similar in attitude.
c. alike in SES.
d. attractive in absolute terms.
6.180 D - Attractive ppl enjoy a plethora of advantages. They are admired by others and wished for as partners by others. While we might wind up with people at our own level of attractiveness as mates, we wish for and are drawn toward a mate of extreme absolute attractiveness.
6.183 In a single-subject design, which of the following serves as the control?
a. results of previous research.
b. the researcher's own estimates of the baseline behavior.
c. the subject.
d. the control group.
6.183 C - In a single-subject design, the subject acts as his/her own control. That is, the subject acts as his/her own comparison grp; i.e., the S's perf. during the baseline (no tx) phase(s) is cfed to his/her perf. during the tx phase(s).
6.184 The best predr of therapy success wd be
a. sxs.
b. dependency.
c. previous tx.
d. misery.
6.184 D - Among these 4 alternatives, it's probably the person who shows the most distress (misery) who wd be the most motivated to seek and make use of tx. Making the sxs dystonic and difficult to bear will enhance motivation.
6.190 Attitude rating scales using dichotomous (agree/disagree) item response categories, when cfed to scales using a 7-point Likert-type item format, are
a. more reliable.
b. less reliable.
c. more valid.
d. less valid.
6.190 B - First, we can discard the qn of validity. Validity is not really a fn of the internal wkings of the scale. It's more about relating the scale results to some outside criterion, and that's not what we're being asked about here. So you then have to distinguish b/w the reliability of a 2-pt scale and that of a 7-pt scale. You shd remember from readings of reliability that it's always better to use more rather than fewer pts in your rating scale.
6.193 The purpose of State Licensing Boards is primarily to:
a. educate the public.
b. educate the profession.
c. protect the public.
d. set minimum stds of practice.
6.193 C - The State Boards derive their authority from the principle of protecting the public. That's the justification for giving exams, setting req'mts for licensure, writing and enforcing regulations, and so on.
6.197 When divorce mediation effects are cfed to litigating a divorce, it has been found that satisfaction is
a. greater for wives than for husbands.
b. greater for husbands than for wives.
c. equally high for both wives and husbands.
6.197 B - It turns out that fathers feel they gain more from mediation than from litigation - they feel they have more to lose from a judge than in directly negotiating w/ the spouse. On the other hand, women feel they are no better off mediating. They actually feel they'd do better before a judge.

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