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Genetics Vocab


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The study of heredity. Of how traits are passed from generation to generation
The structural and functional unit of genetics
Properties of a gene
Genes can change, Genes can be expressed, Genes can move from one chromosome to another
Transmission genetics
The most basic approach, it studies how observable traits are passed from generation to generation. Studied by direct observation (like Mendel did) or by pedigree analyses
Study of chromosome number and structure, and their link to abnormalities. Main tool: Karyotypes
Molecular genetics
It uses recombinant DNA technology to identify, analyze, and manipulate genes
Population genetics
It studies distributions of genes and gene variants (alleles) in populations and their relation to evolution
Basic research
to understand a process or a phenomenon; how things work
Applied research
Solving real practical problems using the knowledge from basic research
Claim: The social, intellectual , and economic level of humans can be improved by selecting breeding (!!!), to save resources and lessen human suffering
Eugenics and reproductive rights
Acts were passed requiring sterilization of those who were genetically, morally, or intellectually “inferior”
Impact of genetics today
The study of the human genome and other complete genomes gave rise to the field of genomics, Biotechnology, GMO's
Mendel’s First law
Principle of segregation- ‘Factors’ segregate during gamete formation so each gamete receives only one of the ‘factors’ (genes) that controls the trait.
Mendel's Second Law
The principle of independent assortment- alleles from one trait segregate independently from alleles in the other trait
Each gene is located in a specific site
Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri independently proposed that genes are located in chromosomes
Incomplete dominance
There are cases, like snapdragons, where the F1 heterozygotes actually have a different phenotype than the parental individuals
When both alleles in a heterozygote are fully expressed
when the action of a gene masks the expression of an unrelated gene
A line of ancestors; a lineage.
cystic fibrosis
is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
Marfan syndrome
a genetic disorder of the connective tissue
X-linked traits
traits that are passed on from parents to offspring on the X chromosome

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