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Psychology and Science


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By the 1920s a new definition of psychology had gained favor. Psychology was said to be the science of
A cognitive psychologise is most likely to be interested in
Memory and perception.
Operational definitions are
Definitions which tell how to collect data.
What does it mean to say a definition is valid?
It measures what you think it measures, as shown by using a different method to measure the same variable.
What does it mean to say a definition is reliable?
You can measure the same thing again and get the same results.
Is essentilly repetition of an experiment in all its details.
In observation research there are no
Experimental manipulations. There is just data collection of some kind.
What is the independent variable, in experimental research?
The variable which is manipulated in an experiment.
A simple-blind design should be sufficient to eliminate what as a confounded variable?
Placebo effects.
How are the experimenter effects eliminated?
With a double blind design.
How do convoultions of a human brain compare with those of a rat or dog brain?
The human brain has many more convolutions.
Bilateral symmetry...
Is common in the animal kingdom.
How might lateralization contribute to a "control system" guiding activity, according to a decades-old theory?
The left hemisphere leads a person to take on challenges, the right hemisphere is associated with avoidance.
What does "autonomic" mean?
PET scans...
Often use labeled glucose.
An axonal arborization looks somewhat like
A dendritic tree.
What does a lobotomy involve?
Cutting off communication between the frontal lobe and the rest of the brain.
What is the corpus callosum?
The main fiber bundle connecting the hemispheres.
What is an axon?
A tube of membrane.
Dopamine, an important transmitter substance...
Produces psychosis in large amounts.
Some psychologists, echoing Watson, point out that consciousness is subjective and "if you can measure it..."
You are in fact studying behavor.
What is true of NON-REM sleep, in contrast to REM sleep?
Slower and more regular breathing.
What is the hypnagogic state?
The state of transition into sleep.
What is a lucid dream?
A dream where you know you are dreaming.
Most psychologists agree hypnosis involves...
Which would be categorized as a "leading question" when interviewing somebody under hypnosis?
Did the robber seem nervous?
Many forms of meditation involve...
Stopping or diverting the inner voice.
Which of the following is a narcotic?
"Alcohol myopia" is said to be...
A reason alcohol consumption is a "risk factor" for sexually transmitted diseases.
What is "anandamide"?
A brain chemical which appears in the frontal lobes and hippocampus.
What is myopia?
A problem focussing the visual image.
Green afterimages after staring at red objects is evidence for...
Two colors signaled by the same channel.
Evidence from brain scans shows...
Evidence of both illusions and hallucinations.
What do ossicles accomplish?
Amplifying vibrations.
The frequency theory of auditory encoding suggests that different frequencies of sound...
Result in different frequencies of nerve impulses.
The little bumps visible on your tongue are...
What sense dominates our ability to taste foods and liquids?
Sense which is responsible for pain, pressure, and touch perception.
The sense of body position which uses receptors in joints and tendons.
Sense of balance and motion.
How do scientists know endorphins are involved in placebo pain relief?
Naloxone, an opiate-blocker, eliminates placebo pain relief.
What is the vestibular apparatus?
The organs for the sense of balance.
The chapter said which of these account for some ESP-like experiences?
Anniversary phenomena.
What is Pavlovian conditioning, in a nutshell?
An anticipatory biological response.
A tone which predicts a puff of air elicits an eyeblink. What is the puff of air?
The UCS.
UCS is the:
Unconditional stimulus which naturally or automatically stimulates a biological response.
S+ is:
A stimulus which indicates reinforcement is available.
CS is:
the "signal" which comes before a reflex or biological event.
CR is:
"Conditional response," which is the classically conditioned response.
You had a car crash; now all cars scare you. ________ is occuring.
What is a CER, by definiation?
An emotional response like anxiety or happiness, set off by a CS.
What is a formal definition of "operant"?
A class of behaviors with an equivalent effect on the environment.
To what does the term "positive" refer, in the term "positive reinforcement"?
The application or addition of a stimulus to a situation.
Negative reinforcement...
Increases the rate of behavior.
DRL stands for...
Differential reinforcement of a low rate of behavior. Done with positive reinforcement.
How can escape learning be converted into aviodance learning?
By giving the animal a warning signal.
What is true of differential reinforcement, but not true of shaping (the method of successive approximations)?
The desired response already occurs.
How can something intended as a punisher actually funtion as a reinforcer?
If frequency of the "punished" behavior goes up.
What is a "trial" in memory research?
A presentation of stimulus materials to a subject.
When would serial learning definitely be needed?
Memorizing the turns to get through a crowded city.
A drawback of the yes / no method of recognition testing is that...
Different people require different levels of confidence before saying "yes".
Sperling, in his pioneering studies of iconic memory...
Asked subjects to read briefly flashed letters.
Rehearsal resembles...
"Re-hearing" something.
What is a "chunk," in short term memory?
A single organized thing or item.
Procedural memory, unlike declarative memory...
Involves sequences or routines; involves the cerebellum.
Declarative memory...
Records facts; involves the hippocampus.
Why are mnemonic devices effective?
Memory depends on retrieval strategies.
The notion of task-appropriate processing implies that if you are preparing for a quiz you should...
Quiz yourself.
Which of the following is NOT something extraordinary memorists generally have in common?
The us of "great effort" to memorize important material.
Historically, AI (artifical intelligence) was distinguished from cognitive psychology in what way?
AI did not care about how humans did something.
To what does the term "constraint satisfaction" refer?
Finding the one solution which fits all the evidence.
What are "two types of mental imagery" pointed out by researchers?
"Pictures" versus "space".
What is teh lexical component of text processing?
Accessing an internal dictionary.
"Orthographic" refers to the...
Physical appearance of letters, such as their shapes.
What do researchers identify as a consistent difference between the way good writers and poor writers revise a written work?
Good writers are more likely to move big chunks of a document to different places.
In the pursuit rotor task, a subject must...
Keep a wand on a little metal dot.
Technically, a "steep learning curve" would be one in which...
Learning has been fast.
What is "hill-climbing" in the context of the General Problem Solver (GPS) program?
Taking steps toward a goal.
The main emphasis of the SOAR program...
What happens in typical cognitive neuroscience research?
Brain scans show which areas are active during a cognitive task.
How does expertise relate to domain-specific knowledge?
Experts are distinguished by lots of domain-specific knowledge.

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