# Chpter 12 Questions

## Terms

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Sampling may be defined as the:
Process of selecting a subset of the population to represent the entire population
Bias in a sample for a quantitative study refers to:
Systematic over- or underrepresentation of an attribute vis-à-vis the population
Strata are incorporated into the design of which of the following sampling approaches?
Quota
Which of the following is not a nonprobability sampling method?
Cluster sampling
The sampling design that would be especially likely to yield a representative sample is:
Systematic
Which of the following types of sample is considered to be the weakest for quantitative studies?
A) Convenience
B) Quota
C) Purposive
D) Systematic
Convenience
The type of nonprobability design that is most likely to yield a representative sample is:
Quota sampling
The procedure of weighting is associated with which type of sampling design?
Disproportionate sampling
A researcher used a probability-type systematic sampling plan. The sample size was 200. The sampling interval was 250. The first element drawn was 196. The second element would be:
446
Which of the following terms does not belong with the others?
A) Purposeful sample
C) Judgmental sample
B) Purposive sample
D) Volunteer sample
Volunteer sample
Theoretical sampling is used by:
Grounded theory researchers
A sampling strategy that is diametrically opposed to maximum variation sampling is:
Homogeneous sampling
As qualitative researchers near the end of data collection, they may employ the technique of sampling:
Disconfirming cases
Samples of 10 or fewer subjects would be most likely to be found in a(n):
Phenomenological study
Sampling bias would be of greater concern in studying body temperatures in healthy adults than in studying their attitudes toward abortion.
False
The major criterion in assessing the adequacy of a sample in a quantitative study is the degree to which it represents the characteristics of interest in the population.
True
Random selection is a key concept in all types of probability sampling designs.
True
If a probability sampling design has been used, the researcher can safely generalize to the target population.
False
Systematic sampling involves the successive random sampling of units from largest to smallest.
False
In a quantitative study, larger samples are more likely to represent the population on the attribute of interest than smaller samples.
True
Snowball sampling is to convenience sampling what cluster sampling is to simple random sampling.
False
Each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected in a quota sampling plan.
False
Systematic sampling may be either probability or nonprobability.
True
The researcher hand-picks people to be included in a study in cluster sampling.
False
If a researcher posted a recruitment notice for a study on a website, people who responded would comprise a convenience sample.
True
Differences between population values and sample values are referred to as weighting errors.
False
In quantitative studies, power analysis is used to estimate the sample size needed to adequately test research hypotheses.
True
Populations that are fairly homogeneous with respect to the dependent variable require a smaller sample size for a quantitative inquiry than heterogeneous populations.
True
A major criterion for assessing the adequacy of a sample in a qualitative study is the degree to which a theory has been developed to adequately describe the population.
False
In a qualitative study, sample size decisions are often guided by the principle of data saturation.
True
The sampling strategy that involves the selection of extreme cases is referred to as maximum variation sampling.
False
Qualitative researchers often strive to purposefully select sample members based on emerging information needs.
True
In homogeneous sampling, the researcher deliberately seeks to increase variation in the characteristics of the sample members.
False
Qualitative samples tend to be small primarily because in-depth interviews are so time-consuming there is insufficient time for large samples.
False
What are the Basic Sampling Concepts?
Population
Sampling
Eligibility criteria
Strata
Target population
Accessible population
The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested in is?
Population
Are populations restricted to humans?
No
Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population ?
Sampling
What are elements?
Entities that make up samples and populations?
Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population is?
Sampling
What is a subset of a population?
sample
The characteristics that define the population is?
Eligibility criteria/Inclusion criteria
What is Exclusion criteria?
The population may be defined to exclude people who do not speak english.
Subpopulations of a population is?
Strata
The entire population of interest is?
Target population
The portion of the target population that is accessible to the researcher, from which a sample is drawn is?
Accessible population
What are the Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Research?
Representative sample
Sampling bias
Sampling error
A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population?
Representative sample
What is the main sampling goal in quantitative research?
Representative sample
Representative sample is more easily achieved with:
Probability sampling
Homogeneous populations
Larger samples
What is probability sampling?
it involves randome selection of elements from population.
What is Homogeneous population?
population that exhibits no varibility at all. the elements of the population are identical.
What is Sampling bias?
The systematic over- or under-representation of segments of the population on key variables
What is Sampling error?
Differences between sample values and population values
What are the 2 braod types of sampling plans?
Probability sampling
Nonprobability sampling
What is Nonprobability sampling?
Does not involve selection of elements at random
What are the Types of Nonprobability Samplingâ€”Quantitative Research?
Convenience (accidental) sampling
Snowball (network) sampling
Quota sampling
Purposive sampling
What is Convenience Sampling?
~Use of the most conveniently available people
~Most widely used approach by quantitative researchers
~Most vulnerable to sampling biases
What is Snowball Sampling?
Referrals for others who meet eligibility criteria from other people already in a sample. Used to identify people with distinctive characteristics.
Used by both quantitative and qualitative researchers.
What is Quota Sampling?
~Similer to Convenience sampling within specified strata of the population.
~Enhances representativeness of sample and does not require sophisticated skills or alot of efforts.
~Infrequently used
What is Purposive (Judgmental) Sampling?
~Sample members are hand-picked by researcher to achieve certain goals
~Used more often by qualitative than quantitative researchers
~Can be used in quantitative studies to select experts or achieve other goals
What are the types of Probability Sampling?
Simple random sampling
Stratified random sampling
Cluster (multistage) sampling
Systematic sampling
What is Simple Random Sampling?
Involves random selection of elements from the sampling frame
~Not to be confused with random assignment to groups in experiments
Cumbersome, not used in large, national surveys.
~Uses a sampling frame
What is a sampling frame?
a list of all population elements
What is Stratified Random Sampling?
~Population divided into strata, then random selection from the stratified sampling frames
~Enhances representativeness
~Can sample proportionately or disproportionately from the strata
What is the most common procedure for drawing a stratified random sample?
to group those elements that belong to a stratum and to randomly select the desired number of elements.
What is Cluster (Multistage) Sampling?
~Successive random sampling of units from larger to smaller (e.g., states, then zip codes, then households)
~Widely used in national surveys
~Larger sampling error than simple random sampling, but more efficient
What is the most common procedure for national surveys?
cluster sampling
The number of study participants in the final sample is?
The Sample Size
What is is a key determinant of sample quality in quantitative research?
Sample size
Sample size needs can be estimated through?
power analysis
Cluster sampling is often referred to as ________.
multistage sampling
What is sampling error/
the difference between population calues and samle values
What are the Methods of Sampling in Qualitative Research?
Convenience (volunteer) sampling
Snowball sampling
Purposive sampling
Theoretical sampling
What are the Types of Purposive Sampling in Qualitative Research (Examples?
Maximum variation sampling
Homogeneous sampling
Extreme/deviant case sampling
Typical case sampling
Criterion sampling
Sampling confirming/disconfirming cases
What is Theoretical Sampling?
Preferred sampling method in grounded theory research

Involves selecting sample members who best facilitate the development of the emerging theory
What is Homogeneous sampling?
Associated with Purposive sampling. involves a deliberate reduction of variaiton to permit a more focused inquiry.
What is Maximum variation sampling?
Associated with Purposive sampling. involves purposefully selecting cases with a range of variation on dimensions of interest.
What is Extreme/deviant case sampling?
Associated with purposive sampling. provides opportunities for learning from the most unusual and extreme informants
What is Typical case sampling?
Associated with purposive sampling.Involves selecting participants who will illustrate or highlight what is typical or average.
What is Criterion sampling?
Associated with purposive sampling. involves studying cases that meet a predetermined criterion of importance.
What is Sampling confirming cases?
Associated with purposive sampling. Additional cases that fit researchers conceptualizations and offer enhanced credibility.
What is Sampling Disconfirming cases?
Associated with purposive sampling. New cases that do not fit and serve top challange researchers interpretations.
Sample Size in Qualitative Research is based on?
Sample size determined by informational needs
A guiding principle in sampling with Qualitative studies is?
data saturation which means sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and rebundacy is achieved.
What are the Three Main Qualitative Traditions in sampling?
Ethnography
Grounded theory
Phenomenology
What is Ethnography?
~Mingling with many members of the cultureâ€”a â€œbig netâ€ approach
~Informal conversations with 25 to 50 informants
~Multiple interviews with smaller number of key informants
What is Phenomenology?
~Relies on very small samples (often 10 or fewer)
~Participants must have experienced phenomenon of interest

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