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Psych 5679


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Thinking+knowing remembering, and communicating
4 parts of Basic cognition
Cognitive Psychology Mental Representation Categories 2 basic terms in knowledge Concept and Prototpye
Mental grouping of Similair objects, events, ideas, or people
Logical Conception
Clearly Defined
Natural Conception
Fuzzy Boundaries
4 Problem solving and Decision making Strategies
Algorithms Hueristics Incubation periods Insight
computers use this approach methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solution Drawback:none may apply to a particular problem
simple thinking strategies that often lead to correct conclusion usually speedier than algorithms; more error-prone than algorithms
Examples of Hueristic
Representative Hueristic Availability Hueristic
Representative Hueristic
judging te liklihood of things based on how wwell they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant infomation
Availabilty Heuristic
estimating the liklihood of events based on availabilty in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common; example: airplane crash
sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts with strategy-based solutions
7 Obstacles of Problem solving and Decision making Strategies
1. Mental set 2. Functional fixedness 3. Irrelevant information 4. Confirmation bias 5. Framing 6. Overconfidence 7. Belief perserverance
Evolutional Psychology
Study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trais variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
a random error in gene replication that leads to genetic damage
Behavior Genetics
study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
the effect of one factor(such as the environment) depends on another factor(such as heredity)
anything that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal developement and cause harm(ex:Alcohol, smoke)
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Developement(the ability to reason Studies)
Sensorimotor(birth-2yrs.) Preoperational(2-6/7yrs.) Concrete operations(6/7 yrs. - 11/12yrs.) Formal Operationss(12 yrs.-Adult)
Reflexes object performances
egocentrism-self centered illogical thinking centration no conservation
Concrete Operations(6/7-11/12yrs.)
conservation logical thinking decentration
Formal Operations(12yrs.-Adult)
abstract reasoning
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
birth-1 year 1-3 years 3-6 years 6-12 years Adolescence Young adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood
birth- 1 year of Psychosocial development
trust versus mistrsu sense of security develops
1-3 years of the Psychosocial Development
Autonomy versus shame and doubt Discovers independence
3-6 years of the Psychosocial Development
Initiate versus Guilt trying new things
6-12 Years of the Psychosocial Development
Industry versus inferiority Gains a sense of mastery and competence
Adolence of the Psychosocial Development
Identity versus role confusion Sense of self, personal values and beliefs
Young adulthood of the Psychosocial Development
Intimacy versus isolation Commiting to mutually loving relationship
Middle adulthood of the Psychsocial Development
Generavity versus stagnation Contributing to society through one's work, family, or community services
Late adulthood of the Psychosocial of Development
Ego integrity versus despair Viewing one's life as satisfactory and worthwhile
In late adulthood Dr.Siebert's Theory of Bipolar Groups
Two Groups;Living and complaining
Descriptions of the Two Bipolar groups
World view and Challenges fun money self image retirement sexuality marriage/partner off spring use it or lose it integrity versus despair life satisfaction reintegration and the meaning of life
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Five propsed stages in approaching death
1. Denial("It must be a mistake.") 2. Anger("It isn't fair.") 3. Bargaining("Let me live longer and I'll be a better person.") 4. Depression("I've lost everything importatn to me.") 5. Accepted("What has to be, has to be.")
Little Albert began being scared of all white fury things.
Classical conditioning
about naturally occuring(reflexive) behavior (also called respondent behavior)
Ivan Povlov
Pysiologist famous for work on digestive track
anything that evokes a response
John Watson
little albert (conditioned emotional response) nurture Can turn a baby into anything
Unconditioned Stimulus
a stimulus that triggers an unconditioned or involuntary response
Albert Bandura
Obse$vational learning Bobo Dolls
Burrhus F. Skinner
operant conditioning who based ideas on Thornickes law of Effects
Thorndike's Law of Effect
behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Conditioning
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Stimulus control
there is no free will
Strengthens or increases the probabillity of a response
Decreases the probabillity for a response
Fixed variable ratio interval
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