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midterm study bio


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What is the most serious drug problem on US campuses?
binge drinking
The ________ Law of Thermodynamics states that in a closed system, energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Chemical reactions that require energy input are classified as what type of reaction?
What is the main energy carrier in most cellular reactions?
The starting substances of chemical reactions are called ________.
Electrons are released during:
Another name for anabolic pathways is ________ pathways.
. degradative
Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the ________ energy.
Which of the following mechanism(s) help get substrates to the transition state?
all of these choices
In feedback inhibition, ________ usually inhibits the first enzyme in a metabolic pathway.
the product
Most enzymes in living organisms work best at a pH around:
Which of the following would diffuse most easily across a cell membrane?
carbon dioxide
Which of the following does not make a molecule diffuse faster across a cell membrane?
a lower temperature
The sodium-potassium pump moves:
potassium into and sodium out of the cell.
What name is given to the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane?
A red blood cell would burst if it were put in a solution that was ________ to it.
Amoebas feed using what type of endocytosis?
What term is used to describe organisms that can make their own food?
What color light is chlorophyll least able to use?
The red/purple color of fall leaves, red cabbage, and cherries is caused by ________ pigments.
Which of the following can be produced during light-dependent reactions?
both ATP and NADH
What chemical, released during photosynthesis, changed both the atmosphere and the organisms in the early Earth?
When light hits a photopigment, light boosts the pigment's ________ to a higher energy level.
After passing through an electron transfer chain, electrons can be used to reduce
Electrons lost by chlorophyll in the noncyclic pathway are replaced by electrons from:
NADPH is produced during ________ pathway
the noncyclic
Carbon that is converted to carbohydrate in the light-independent pathways comes from:
carbon dioxide
The cycle used to fix carbon is called the ________ cycle
Openings in plant leaves that allow water to enter and exit are called:
In the C4 pathway, the first stable intermediate produced is:
Cacti are classified as ________ plants.
Anaerobic means that a pathway does not require
The majority of ATP made during the breakdown of glucose is made during:
electron transfer reactions
What three-carbon compound is the most common end product of glycolysis?
How many ATPs are required for the early stages of glucose breakdown in glycolysis?
After glycolysis, where does aerobic respiration continue?
in the mitochondria
How many ATPs are formed during the Krebs cycle for each acetyl-CoA that enters?
Where are the electron transfer chains located in mitochondria?
in the inner membrane
At the end of the electron transfer chain, the spent electrons are passed to ________ to make ________.
oxygen, water
What is the final carbon-containing end product of the complete aerobic respiration of glucose?
carbon dioxide
Yeast (alcoholic) fermentation is used in the production of:
bread and beer
Lactate fermentation is important in the production of:
sauerkraut and yogurt
Lactate fermentation can be performed by:
fast-twitch muscle fibers.
Which pancreatic hormone stimulates muscles to take in glucose?
Which pancreatic hormone stimulates muscles to take in glucose?
In humans, the largest amount of energy storage is in:
Which of the following can be broken down and used as energy sources?
1. carbohydrates 2. fats 3. proteins 4. all of these
The first energy pathway that evolved was probably:
Mitosis occurs in somatic, or body, cells for the purpose of:
all of these choices.
Some kinases inhibit the cell cycle and mitosis:
all of these choices.
When a cell loses control over its replication cycle, the following can happen:
the cell can divide over and over with no interphase. 2. the cell may not die as it is supposed to. 3. damaged chromosomes may be replicated. 4. all of these choices.
Tumor suppressors are:
checkpoint genes for proteins that inhibit mitosis.
Oncogenes are:
checkpoint genes for proteins that stimulate mitosis.
functions only in sexual reproduction.
Prokaryotic fission:
occurs in bacteria and archaea.
Microtubules originate at the:
Histone proteins are a component of the:
G1, G2, and S are the three stages of:
DNA is replicated in the ________ stage of the cell cycle.
The sex chromosomes of a human female are:
In early prophase,
DNA and associated proteins begin to condense.
Cytoplasmic division of a plant cell involves:
the formation of a cell plate.
What distinguishes a malignant tumor, or cancer, from a benign neoplasm?
The cells break loose from their home tissue and invade other tissues.
Epidermal growth factor:
all of these choices.

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