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operator region
contains several copies of DNA binding protein, it is the region on the gene to which a repressor can bind, preventing transcription of the genes
messenger rna
the template for protein synthesis
a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers
enclose or enfold completely with or as if with a covering
the more open, unraveled form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription
the act of uniform movement
the act of ending something
the act of lengthening something
cancer causing chemicals or agents are called?
frameshift mutation
a mutation occuring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons
the act of making or becoming a single unit
regulatory gene
a gene that produces a repressor substance that inhibits an operator gene
recombinant dna
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
reverse transcriptase
a polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template
lagging strand
the discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
an act that sets in motion some course of events
the act of changing in form or shape or appearance
(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts
complementary dna
single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase
a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids
Similar to ATP, this is also used for energy transfer by breaking its phosphate bonds.
a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
lytic cycle
a phage reprodductive cycle that culminates in death of the host cell is known as a ______ _______
ribosomal rna
a ribosome is made up of 2 subunits, called the large and small subunits, which are constructed of proteins and RNA molecules called __________ ___
okazaki fragments
as the bubble grows, another segment of the lagging strand can be made in a similar way by ______ ________
dna fingerprinting
analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
rna processing
modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus
nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers know as this.
dna ligase
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
the act of making a record (especially an audio record)
sticky end
an end of DNA in which one strand of the double helix extends a few units beyond the other
dna polymerase
the principal enzyme involved in DNA replication
Nucleosomes condensed several times to form intact chromatids. The length from linker to linker histones.
structural genes
Genes that code for enzymes needed in chemical reactions.
Viral DNA that inserts into a host genome.
small nuclear ribonucleoproteins
(snRNPs) recognize splice sites; are composed of RNA, protein molecules
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
a set of DNA that is inserted into a gene sequence
trp operon
tryptophan binds to the repressor protein and enables it to repress gene transcription.
repressible enzymes
An enzyme whose production is generally continuous but can be halted if a particular substance is present in concentrations greater than normal
Loss of a DNA (chromosome) segment from a chromosome with often with disastrous effects.
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
restriction enzymes
The proteins used to cut DNA molecules at specilic places so that scientists can isolate pieces with the desired genes.
a change or alteration in form or qualities
gel electrophoresis
a technique for sorting DNA by length
a number of physical and chemical agents, called _______, intereact with DNA in ways and cause mutations
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
any of a group of viruses that contain two single-strand linear RNA molecules per virion and reverse transcriptase (RNA to DNA)
excision repair
The process of removing and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide.
dna replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
semiconservative replication
DNA replication in which each of the parental strands is read to make a complementary daughter strand, ethus each new DNa molecule is composed of half the parental molecule paired with a newly synthesized strand.
repressor protein
a regulatory protein that binds to an operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon
differences between humans from: individual genes that vary between people & enviornmental variation impacting development
a coding region of a eukaryotic gene; when expressed, they are separated from each other by introns
non-transcribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it's visible with a light microscope
protein synthesis
The assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules
lac operon
a gene system whose operator gene and three structural genes control lactose metabolism in E. coli
polymerase chain reaction
A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according
the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
transfer rna
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according
A genetic element in bacteria that can replicate free in the cytoplasm (has a different number of copies) or can be inserted into the main bacterial chromosome and replicate with the chromosome. Plasmids are an example.
transposable elements longer and more complex than insertion sequences, called __________, also move in the bacterial genome
heterogenous nuclear rna
The original RNA transcripts found in eukaryotic nuclei before post-transcriptional modifications. A diverse assortment of RNA types found in the nucleus, including mRNA precursors (pre-mRNA) and other types of RNA. Abbreviated hnRNA.
inducible enzymes
An enzyme whose transcription can be stimulated by an abundance of its substrate (as opposed to repressible enzyme). Usually in catabolism.
when integrated into the bacterial chromosome, the viral DNA is known as a ___________
rna primase
What enzyme produces an RNA primer in the 5'-3' direction and is essential to DNA replication because DNA polymerases are unable to synthesize DNA without an RNA primer?
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
replacement of one nucleotide with another
The smalll, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.
a non-coding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene
rna primer
Sequence of RNA primers bound to a region of single-stranded DNA to initiate DNA replication.
promoter region
A regulatory region a short distance upstream from the 5' end of a transcription start site that acts as the binding site for RNA polymerase. A region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds in order to initiate transcription.
coil stress, coil stress
lysogenic cycle
the ______ ______ replicates the phage genome without destroying the host
viruses that infect bacteria

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