This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

bio chapter 10 vocab

chapter 10 vocab for ap bio


undefined, object
copy deck
regulatory gene
A gene primarily involved in controlling another (structural) gene. Genes that are involved in turning on or off the transcription of structural genes.
physical or chemical agent that causes mutation
excision repair
A process whereby cells remove part of a damaged DNA strand and replace it through DNA synthesis using the undamaged strand as a template. The repair of a DNA lesion by removal of the faulty DNA segment and its replacement with a new segment.
internal noncoding regions in most genes of plants and animals
The metabolite that when bound to the repressor (of a repressible operon) forms a functional unit that can bind to its operator and block transcription.
A virus chromosome integrated into the DNA of the host cell.
Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) A powerful method for amplifying specific DNA segments which exploits certain features of DNA replication. For instance replication requires a primer and specificity is determined by the sequence and size of the primer. The method amplifies specific DNA segments by cycles of template denaturation; primer addition; primer annealing and replication using thermostable DNA polymerase. The degree of amplification achieved is set at a theoretical maximum of 2^N, where N is the number of cycles, eg 20 cycles gives a theoretical 1048576 fold amplification. In addition to primers and DNA polymerase, PCR reactions must contain template DNA (the DNA to be amplified) and the DNA "building blocks", deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs, which include dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP).
A protein that unwinds DNA at replication forks.
transfer of a bacterial gene by a phage
The specific allelic composition of a cell, either of the entire cell or more commonly for a certain gene or a set of genes. The genes that an organism possesses.
DNA lisage
enzyme that links (ligates) the pieces together into a single DNA strand
Transfer RNA ( tRNA) molecule with its cognate amino acid attached.
stop of mRNA synthesis (i.e., transcription) at the terminator site
a sequence of repeating adenosine ribonucleotides added to the 3' end of a newly transcribed pre- mRNA before it exits the nucleus. This modification can be up to 200-300 bases long and functions to increase the stability and translatability of the mRNA.
Enzymes of two types that can remove (or create) supercoiling in duplex DNA by creating transitory breaks in one (type I) or both (type II) strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone.
A genetic element in bacteria that can replicate free in the cytoplasm (has a different number of copies) or can be inserted into the main bacterial chromosome and replicate with the chromosome. Plasmids are an example.
messenger RNA
(mRNA) kind of RNA that encodes amino acid sequences; conveys genetic information from DNA and the message in it is then translated into polypeptides
Okazaki Fragments
Segment of newly replicated DNA produced during discontinuous DNA replication.
restriction fragment length polymorphisms
(RFLPs) variation in DNA fragment banding patterns of electrophoresed restriction digests of DNA from different individuals of a species. Often due to the presence of a restriction enzyme cleavage site at one place in the genome in one individual and the absence of that specific site in another individual.
RNA processing
A series of enzymatic reactions that convert the primary transcript to a mature functional molecule. Processing includes: base modification, sugar modification, pyrimidine ring rearrangements, formation of helices and tertiary conformations, additions to the 5′- and 3′-termini, specific exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic cleavages, complex cleavages with splicing and the formation of RNA-protein complexes. The number, type and order of the processing events varies with the RNA species
DNA polymerases
enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand that only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the strand, never to the 5' end
The first stage of tumour induction by a carcinogen; subtle alteration of cells by exposure to a carcinogenic agent so that they are likely to form a tumour upon subsequent exposure to a promoting agent (promotion
Subunit that polymerizes into nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). Each (word) consists of a nitrogenous base; a sugar; and one to three phosphate groups.
5' cap
structure consisting of a 7-methylguanosine (m7G) residue attached backwards (i.e., 5' to 5') by a triphosphate linkage to the 5' end of primary mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes. In addition, the first and, in some cases, second nucleotide of the mRNA are methylated at the 2' position of the ribose residue. The 5' cap protects the mRNA from attack by 5' exonucleases and also functions in the recognition of the mRNA by ribosomes.
RNA Primer
An enzyme that creates an RNA primer for initiation of DNA replication.
any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
recombinant DNA
A novel DNA sequence formed by the joining, usually in vitro, of two non-homologous DNA molecules.
Lac operon
An inducible operon including three loci involved in the uptake and breakdown of lactose in Escherichia coli.
Heterogenous nuclear RNA
The original RNA transcripts found in eukaryotic nuclei before post-transcriptional modifications. A diverse assortment of RNA types found in the nucleus, including mRNA precursors (pre-mRNA) and other types of RNA. Abbreviated hnRNA.
gel electrophoresis
A research technique used to separate molecules (or fragments of a molecule) according to size. Upon electrical stimulation, smaller fragments of a molecule will move faster through the gel than larger fragments. The process is typically done to separate DNA fragments after the DNA has been cut with restriction enzymes.
a molecule which consists of two similar (but not necessarily identical) subunits. The term could also be used as a verb referring to the act of the two subunits coming together to (word)
A nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three linked phosphate groups. It is incorporated into the growing RNA chain during synthesis of RNA and used as a source of energy during synthesis of proteins
protein synthesis
The process in which individual amino acids, whether of exogenous or endogenous origin, are connected to each other in peptide linkage in a specific order dictated by the sequence of nucleotides in dNA; this governing sequence is conveyed to the synthesizing apparatus in the ribosomes by mRNA, formed by base-pairing on the DNA template. A process where information is taken from DNA to acts as a blue print for creating a particular protein that is in demand by the body. This blueprint will allow the construction of the protein with the various materials required in its production. Pro.
one-gene-one-polypeptide hypothesis
A revision of the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis.
A chromosome region that stains poorly or not at all; thought to contain the normally functioning genes. Region of eukaryotic chromosome that is diffuse during interphase. Presumably the actively transcribing DNA of the chromosomes.
repressible enzymes
An enzyme whose production is generally continuous but can be halted if a particular substance is present in concentrations greater than normal
One-gene-one-enzyme hypothesis
Hypothesis of Beadle and Tatum that one gene controls the production of one enzyme. Later modified to the concept that one cistron controls the production of one polypeptide
operator region
DNA region at one end of an operon that acts as the binding site for repressor protein. A DNA sequence that is recognized by a repressor protein or repressor-corepressor complex. When the operator is complexed with the repressor, transcription is prevented.
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses); most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosonal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts
the transfer of information in the RNA into a protein
binary fission
The process in which a parent cell splits into two daughter cells of approximately equal size. Simple cell division in single-celled organisms.
repressor protein
The protein product of a regulator gene that acts to control transcription of inducible and repressible operons. A molecule that binds to the operator and prevents transcription of an operon. Generally any molecule that can reversibly inactivate a gene.
semiconservative replication
The mode by which DNA replicates. Each strand acts as a template for a new double helix. The established model of DNA replication in which each double-stranded molecule is composed of one parental strand and one newly polymerized strand.
union of cells and DNA transfer between them (Latin word conjugatus meaning united)
Gain of a DNA (chromosome) segment from a chromosome often with disastrous effects.
Complemetary DNA
(cDNA) Synthetic DNA reverse transcribed from a specific RNA through the action of the enzyme reverse transcriptase. DNA synthesized by reverse transcriptase using RNA as a template.
An agent (chemical or radiation) that causes cancer.
Trp operon
tryptophan binds to the repressor protein and enables it to repress gene transcription.
bacterial viruses "bacteria eaters"
genetic code
set of rules giving the correspondence between codons in RNA and amino acids in proteins
lysogenic cycle
viral DNA replication occurs without destroying the host cell
Loss of a DNA (chromosome) segment from a chromosome with often with disastrous effects.
RNA Primase
An enzyme that creates an RNA primer for initiation of DNA replication.
sticky end
A protruding, single-stranded nucleotide se-quence produced when a restriction endonuclease cleaves off center in its recognition sequence
Single Stranded DNA binding proteins
Protein that binds to single-stranded DNA usually near the replication fork to stabilize the single strands.
parameter indicating the degree to which the cross-section of a toroidal plasma is non-circular. Kappa=b/a, where b and a are the vertical and horizontal minor radii. as kappa is increased, the confinement in relation to the total current improves, but the plasma also becomes more and more unstable to vertical displacements. a circular plasma has kappa of 1, a common value for elongated plasmas is 1.7, and the absolute limit is probably around 2.
lytic cycle
reproductive cycle of phage T2 which results in the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of viruses produced in the cell
Small nuclear ribonucleicproteins (snRNPs)
(RNA plus protein) particle. Component of the spliceosome, the intron-removing apparatus in eukaryotic nuclei.
"jumping genes" A mobile piece of DNA that is flanked by terminal repeat sequences and typically bears genes coding for transposition functions.
replication fork
The point at which the two strands of DNA are separated to allow replication of each strand
promoter region
A regulatory region a short distance upstream from the 5' end of a transcription start site that acts as the binding site for RNA polymerase. A region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds in order to initiate transcription.
bacterial viruses "eaters"
Frameshift Mutation
The insertion or deletion of a nucleotide pair or pairs, causing a disruption of the translational reading frame.
ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) kind of RNA that makes one out of two subunits in a ribosome
particle consisting of a nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) genome surrounded by a protein coat (capsid) and sometimes also a membrane, which can replicate only after infecting a host cell. A virus particle may exist free of its host cell but is incapable of replicating on its own
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme, requiring a DNA primer, that catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA strand from an RNA template. An enzyme that can use RNA as a template to synthesize DNA
inducible enzymes
an enzyme that can be detected in a growing culture of a microorganism, after the addition of a particular substance (inducer) to the culture medium, but was not detectable prior to the addition and can act on the inducer
RNA polymerase
transcription enzyme in which RNA nucleotides are linked
An RNA virus that replicates by first being converted into double-stranded DNA by reverse transcriptase.
coding regions; parts of a gene that are expressed as amino acids
structural gene
gene en coding the amino acid sequence of a protein. Non-regulatory gene.
Lagging Strand
In DNA replication, the strand that is synthesized apparently in the 3' to 5' direction, but actually in the 5' to 3' direction by ligating short fragments synthesized individually. Strand of DNA being replicated discontinuously.
A nu body; the basic unit of eukaryotic chromosome structure; a ball of eight histone molecules wrapped about by two coils of about 220 base pairs of DNA. Arrangement of DNA and histones forming regular spherical structures in eukaryotic chromatin.
replacement of one nucleotide with another
transfer RNA (tRNA)
Small RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for polymerization into a polypeptide. During translation the amino acid is inserted into the growing polypeptide chain when the anticodon of the tRNA pairs with a codon on the mRNA being translated.
uptake of foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
A type of basic protein that forms the unit around which DNA is coiled in the nucleosomes of eukaryotic chromosomes. Arginine and lysine rich basic proteins making up a substantial portion of eukaryotic nucleoprotein.
restriction enzyme
An endonuclease that will recognize a specific target nucleotide sequence in DNA and break the DNA chain at the target; a variety of these enzymes are known, and they are extensively used in genetic engineering.
Densely staining condensed chromosomal regions, believed to be for the most part genetically inert. chromatin that remains tightly coiled (and darkly staining) throughout the cell cycle.
transfer of DNA into an RNA molecule
That which envelops, wraps up, encases, or surrounds; a wrapper; an inclosing cover; especially, the cover or wrapper of a document, as of a letter
Leading Strand
Strand of DNA being replicated continuously. In DNA replication, the strand that is made in the 5' to 3' direction by continuous polymerization at the 3' growing tip.
DNA fingerprinting
A method of identifying people based on the analyses of a persons satalite DNA (satalite DNA are small tandem repeats which make up a significant proportion of a cell's DNA and that is unique for each person

Deck Info