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Unit 6 - Chapter 16

Terms

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helicase
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
transformation
a change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of external DNA by a cell
primase
an enzyme called _____ can start an RNA chain from scratch. it joins RNA nucleotides together one at a time, making a primer complementary to the template strand at the location where initiation of the new DNA strand will occur
mismatch repair
in ________ ________, cells use special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
origins of replication
the replication of a DNA molecule begins at special sites called _________ ___ _______
lagging strand
the discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
replication fork
at each end of a replication bubble is a ________ ________, a Y-shaped region where the new strands of DNA are elongating
single-strand binding protein
after helicase separates the 2 parental strands, molecules of ______-_______ _______ __________ then bind to the unpaired DNA strands, stabilizing them until they serve as templates for the synthesis of new complementary strands
antiparallel
the two strands of DNA in a double helix are ________, meaning they are oriented in opposite directions to each other
okazaki fragments
as the bubble grows, another segment of the lagging strand can be made in a similar way by ______ ________
primer
the initial nucleotide chain is a short one called a _________. These may consist of either DNA or RNA, and in initiating the replication of cellular DNA, this is a short stretch of DNA with an available 3' end
topoisomerase
a protein that junctions in DNA replication, helping to receive strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork
DNA ligase
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
dispersive model
all four strands of DNA following replication have a mixture of old and new DNA
telomeres
eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules have nucleotide sequences called _______ at their ends
bacteriophages
viruses that infect bacteria
nucleotide excision repair
the process of removing and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the damaged strand as a guide
DNA polymerases
elongation of new DNA at a replication fork is catalyzed by enzymes called ______ _________
nuclease
usually, a segment of the strand containing the damage is cut out by a DNA-cutting enzyme (a ________) and the resulting gap is filled with nucleotides properly paired with the nucleotides in the undamaged strand
semiconservative model
type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand
double helix
the presence of 2 strands of DNA

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