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Modern World History


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Thomas Hobbes
- “freedom from”
-give up freedom to one person, it would keep you safe, efficient society
-put judgment in hands of government
-if you didn’t like the government, you could get killed, there was no choice
-he didn’t trust people, pessimistic about human nature
-in absence of strong government—chaos and war, men’s nature to fight each other
-government to prevent invasion, each war, society shutting down
-thought human nature was basically bad and needed to be controlled
-wrote the document, Leviathon
John Locke
-“freedom to”
-his form of government was consent of society
-government was supposed to enforce laws made by people’s representatives
-different people made and enforced laws and separated power
-thought human nature was flawed
-power was ultimately with the people
-a bad government could be overthrown, tyranny
-the purpose of law was to give freedom to the people
-wrote the document the second treatise of civil government
Triangular Trade
-it was a profitable commerce due to the demand for labor in the western hemisphere
-the trade went on three voyages for the trade thus calling it the triangular
-the first voyage was a trade of horses and European manufactured goods (i.e. cloth and metal) which they traded for the slaves in Africa
-the second voyage took the slaves to the Caribbean and Americas in which here they sold the slaves for much more then what they had originally cost.
-Slaves were usually traded for sugar molasses because slaves were needed mostly in sugar-production regions
-they would then return to Europe with whatever they had exchanged the slaves for
-the business was brutal and very inhumane for the slaves
-the trade began to get violent because of the high demands for slaves
Middle Passage
-it was a journey in which slaves went on a crowded and filthy ship
-The conditions were so bad that many slaves tried to starve themselves
-the ship crews wanted to keep the slaves alive so that they could sell them at the end of the journey
-any slaves that were ill were thrown overboard because the crew was scared that the other passengers would then get sick and die
-1/4 of the slaves traveling middle passage did not survive the voyage
-a portion of the population (i.e. the birthrates, death rates)
-the population in African places such as Angola was really uneven because they had many more women then males because men were better slaves and could perform more duties so they were constantly being taken from their country
-it was a centralized state and had officials who took care of military, judicial, and financial affairs
-it had a close political and diplomatic relationship with Portuguese merchants and they gave Kongo a bunch of things including workers
-the kings converted to Christianity because they wanted to have closer commercial relations with the Portuguese merchants and better relations with the monarchy
-Kongo became wealthy because of their relations with the Portuguese but the kingdom was destructed
-The Portuguese established a colony in Angola and traded their workers for other merchandise
-Kongo and Portugal relations were very strong for a long time but then just went away because many of the Portuguese wanted to move towards the South of Kongo
-By the eighteenth century, the Kongo kingdom had completely gone away
-They obtained weapons (very effective firearms), which allowed its armies to capture slaves from other societies and exchange them for more weapons
-the army became a large slave-raiding force because of its soldiers and weapons (including women soldiers)
Holy Roman Empire
-Charles V wanted to revive the emperor yet there was no hope
-Charles was held back from establishing this empire because he ruled everything according to what he wanted (i.e. his own laws and customs)
-he didn’t have the ambition to extend by military force, foreign difficulties made it hard
Spanish Inquisition
-it relied on religious justifications to advance the state ends
-it later served political and religious purposes
-it originally was supposed to get rid of people who secretly practiced Judaism or Islam it expanded very far
-it was used by the monarchy to detect people against the Protestant religion and those who publicly shared their oppositions against Protestants
-any English protestant who followed and advocated strict religious discipline
-a regime took power when there was no king but then just turned into a disagreeable dictatorship
Glorious Revolution
-a change of power in which parliament overthrew King James II and asked his daughter and her husband to take over
-it all ended with an agreement that the kinds would rule in cooperation with parliament and so thus nobles and merchants could be involved with government affairs
Cardinal Richelieu
-he was a church official who played a large role in French absolutism
-he served as a chief minister to Kin Louis XIII
-he worked to make the nobles power lower and the kings power higher
-in order to achieve this he destroyed nobles castles and crushed aristocratic conspiracies
-he also built a large bureaucracy and appointed officials to supervise the making of a royal policy in the provinces
-he also attacked French Calvinists who were allies to the nobles many times
“The Sun King” (Louis XIV)
-he highly represented absolutism (a political system in which the power of a ruler is unchecked and absolute)
-he had court officials who tended to his every need and he broadcasted laws
-he controlled a massive standing army and promoted economic development (i.e. supporting the establishment of new industries building roads and canals)
-it was the largest building in Europe and it was Louis’s home
-Louis had wonderful gardens here that were very intricate
-Louis hunted and thought it to be a very important recreation; he used common sense and was naturally a sportsman
-when it was after-hours and Louis couldn’t hunt he went for walks in his gardens even though the gravel was hard to walk on
-old Russian term for king
Peter the Great
-he wanted to make Russia huge yet under populated and he wanted great military power
-he wanted to model Western lands
-he reformed an army with better pay and by drafting peasants
-he ordered the aristocrats to study geometry
-he made tax collection easier and improved administrative efficiency
-he made St. Petersburg even though it was a very bad place to build a city yet he chose this place because of the river
- he also chose to build it in the west because he wanted Russia to have that culture
-the town was built extremely quickly yet the people suffered horrible labor
-different workers came to St. Petersburg because they knew it was becoming a prosperous town
-Peter didn’t want to be isolated like Moscow
-He ruled the nobles in every way
Catherine the Great
-she wanted to improve government efficiency and tried to do this by dividing her large empire into about fifty provinces and promoted economic development in Russia’s towns
-for some time she worked on making conditions better on the peasants and restricting the nobles from inflicting punishments on the peasants
-she also wanted to eliminate many of the tortures such as beating and cutting off of body parts like toes and such
-he was an ex-Russian soldier
-he led a peasant rebellion against Catherine the Great
-she killed him and showed him off to make an example out of him and to threaten people
- an economic system in which resources and means of production are privately owned and prices, production, and the distribution of goods are determined mainly by competition in a free market
-it generated wealth in Europe
Putting-out system
-a method in which unfinished products are given to rural homes in order to be completed
Adam Smith
-he thought that society would prosper once people pursued their own economic interests.
- he was a Scottish philosopher and was an early follower of capitalism
Ptolemaic Universe
-people based their understanding of the universe on the teachings of Ptolemy
- he believed that the earth didn’t move and that there were nine shapes (planets) that floated around it
Copernican Universe
-the astronomer Copernicus believed that sun was in the center of the universe instead of the earth and all the planets including the earth rotated around the sun
-his ideas seemed threatening to basic religious studies and went against most scientific theories
Johannes Kepler
-he was a mathematician that demonstrated that planetary orbits are elliptical and not circular as Ptolemy thought
Galieo Galilei
-he was also a mathematician who showed that the heavens were in fact imperfect
-he used the microscope to determine things in the sky and he designed experiments that showed the velocity of falling bodies depends on the height from which they fall rather then their weight.
Isaac Newton
-he believed in mathematical reasoning and scientific evidence in order for the thoughts that people had to be true about astronomy
-he wrote the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
-he argued that there was a law of universal gravitation which regulated the motion of bodies throughout the universe
-they were intellectuals who advanced the cause of reason
-they showed their work off the educated public which made them different from philosophers who only showed off their works to scholars
-they focused on moral, religious, and political values
-a French philosophe, champion of religious liberty and individual freedom
-he wrote many books and targeted the French monarchy and roman catholic church because they didn’t allow much freedom
-a philosophy in which people believed in a god but denied the teachings of Christianity
-they believed that god presented natural laws yet no longer intervenes in any of the world’s matters
Lisbon Earthquake
-people were on the way to church when the earthquake hit
-some believed that the cause for the earthquake was because of religion others believed that it was scientific
-religion didn’t allow us to fully understand why it happened
-people believed it could have been god punishing us

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