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Religious Studies Midterm Exam Terms


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What is monotheism?
the belief in one God
What is polytheism?
The belief in many gods.
What is atheism?
The belief in no god.
What is agnosticism?
We cannot know whether there is a god or not.
What is monolatry?
The belief in many gods, but worship of only one.
What is henotheism?
Devotion to one "God," with the acceptance of the existance of other gods.
What is theism?
Beleif in gods or deities.
What is deism?
Beleif in a personal God or gods.
What is pantheism?
God is in everything.
What is animism?
Nature is alive with soul
What was E.B. Tylor's theory of religion?
animism>ancestor worship>polytheism>monotheism
What is mana?
life force
What was Karl Marx's view of religion?
-People create religion
-Keeps the opressed from revolting
What is Sigmund Freud's view of religion?
-religion originates in men's guilt
-results in worship of father figure
What is Emile Durkheim's view of religion?
God is society
What is Paul Tillich's theory of religion?
Religion is that which is of "ultimate concern"
What is Jiddu Krishnamurti's theory of religion?
humans are always seeking something "beyond"
What is an oral religion?
A religion not transmitted in writing
What are rites of passage?
a ritual that marks significant life events
What is a taboo?
Something too sacred or too forbidden
What is divination?
predicting the future/interpreting signs or omens
Who were the Hopi and Zuni?
Early native american peoples
A type of Pueblo Indians
Divided into matrillenial clans/only women own land
Who are the Pueblo Indians?
New mesico/arizona regions
including the hopi/zuni
live in adobes
Who were the Anasazi?
"The ancient ones"
Pueblo Indians
What are the 3 meanings of "Kachina"?
1) a diety
2) a masked dancer representing the deity
3) a doll representing the deity
What is the religious view of Robert Henry Codrington?
Mana is the basis of all religion
What is the religious view of Max Muller?
religion comes from nature worship and confused speech.
What is the religious view of Wilhelm Schmidt?
monotheism origional/corruption led to polytheism because even primitive people believe in a high God.
What were the 3 steps in Sir James Frazer's theory of religion?
1) Magic: trying to control nature
2) Religion: pleading with nature
3) Science: actually controlling nature
Who is Krishna?
One of the 10 incarnations of Vishnu. A mischievous toddler, but loved and adored.
Who is Radha?
A Gopi (shepardess) with which Krishna has a special relationship that represents the relationship between god and soul.
Who is Yudhishthira?
Oldest Pandava brother/incarantion of dharma (righteouness)/leader/fond of gambling
Who is Bhima?
Strongest Pandava brother/incarnation of Vayu (god of the wind)
Who is Arjuna?
The perfect warrior/main character of the Bhagavad Gita/Incarnation of Indra (the god of war)
Who were Nakula and Sahadeva?
Twin Pandava brothers/incarnations of Vedic gods Ashvins
What are the three HINDU paths to salvation?
1) Path of action
2) Path of knowledge
3) path of devotion
Who is Rama?
A Prince, hero of the Ramayana poem. Saves his wife from kidnapping by demon.
Who is Kalki?
Final avatara yet to come. Will come at the end of the age and destroy evil.
Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
Born to Queen Maya after a dream. Lived in luxury in the palace (never left) until he went out and saw the four signs. Became The first Buddha.
What were the four signs that the Buddha saw?
1. old man
2. sick man
3. dead man
4. hermit (monk)
Four noble truths of Buddhism?
1. All this is suffering
2. The cause of suffering is desire
3. When desire is gone, suffering is gone
4. This can be achieved by following the 8-fold path
What is the 8-fold path?
1. right understanding
2. right intention
3. right speech
4. right action
5. right work
6. right effort
7. right meditation
8. right contemplation
What is samadhi?
right contemplation
What is anatta?
no self
What is dhamma?
existential atoms, both physical and mental.
What are the five aggregates?
1. body
2. perception
3. sensation
4. karmic traces
5. conciousness
What is nirvana?
"blowing out/extinction"
liberation of the cycle of death and rebirth
What is Theravada Buddhism?
most conservative form of Buddhism/each person reaches liberation alone/monastaries important/religious language is PALI
What is Mahayana Buddhism?
-goal is the liberation of all beings
-enlightened being lead otehrs to salvation
-religious language is sanskrit
What is an arhat?
Theravada ideal: someone who has entered the 8-fold path. Usually a monk
What is a bodhisattva?
Mahayana ideal: enlighted being who steps back on brink of nirvana to save others. A being without karma.
Who is Maitreya?
next buddha to come. can be encountered in meditation
Who is Avalokiteshvara?
The Bodisatva of compassion
Who is Padmasambhava?
Brought Buddhism to Tibet.
Who was Guru Rinpoche?
Tibetian name for Padmasambhava. Brought Buddhism to Tibet.
What is "bon?"
animistic tibeten religion
what is a lama?
a tibetan buddist preist
What is terma
hidden ancient scriptures
What is terton
spiritual masters.
What are mandalas?
sacred diagrams used in meditation. represent cosmos.
What is "dorje?"
represents compassion.
What is drilbu?
a hand-ball
represents wisdom
What was the Pueblo revolt?
Pueblo Indians and apaches overthrew Spanish in New Mexico for 12 years. Destroyed chruches/annulled Christian marriages.
Who was Trevino?
Spanish governor that banned native religions in 1675.
Who was Pope?
Medicine man. Publically whipped by Spanish for witchcraft. Claimed the Kachinam had called him to restore ancient ways.
What is "kiva?"
Hopi for "old house" a ceremonial chamber underground for secret rituals. Only for the initiated.
What does veda mean? What are the Vedas?
Veda means wisdom. The four vedas are the oldest texts in hinduism.
What is rigveda?
Wisdom of the verses.
What is samaveda?
wisdom of the songs.
What is the yajurveda?
wisdom of the sacrificial formulas.
what is the atharvaveda?
wisdom of the atharva preists.
Who is Agni?
vedic god of fire. mediator between gods and humans.
Who is Indra?
the god of thunder and war.
Who is Varuna?
the universal king. punishes sinners.
Who is Mitra?
god of friendships and contracts.
Who is surya?
the sun personified.
Who is Ashvins?
divine twins/ride of hourses/rescue people in need.
Who are maruts?
group of gods associcated with wind and storm.
Who is Ushas?
goddess of dawn. lovely madien. pursued by sun.
Who is Vac?
goddess of language. embodies the language of sanskrit. goddess of poets.
What is soma?
god/sacred plant. hallucinogenic. grown on mountains. pressed, fermented, mixed with milk.
What are the four castes?
Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras
What are the Brahmans?
What are the Kashatriyas?
What are Vaishyas?
What are Shudras?
What is atman?
inner self
What is brahman?
cosmic force
What is the Bhagavad Gita?
"The Song of the Lord." one of the most sacred texts. dialouge between krishna and arjuna. part of the mahabharata.
What is the Mahabharata?
World's longest poem. Composed in sanskrit. pandava vs. kaurava brothers.
What is Zen?
meditation/ japanese school of Buddhism?
Who is Bodhidharma?
founder of Zen in China. Inventor of tea?
What is satori?
sudden enlightenment
What is a koan?
a zen riddle. has no answer. helps deconstruct samsara.
What is zazen?
meditation is a lotus position. daily practice.
What is a jaina?
one who practices jainism
What is a jina?
spiritual conquereor, one who has reached liberation.
What are tirthamkara?
aka JINA. helps people cross river of samsara.
Who is Mahavira.
"founder" of jainism.
Who is Vardhamana.
Mahavira's original name. founder of jainism.
what is jiva?
eternal soul in every living being.
what is ahimsa?
What are the two types of jainism?
Svetambara and Digambara
What is Svetambara?
sect of jainsits. both men and women...wear white
What is Digambara?
sect of jainists. must renounce everything, including clothes. no women.
Who is guru nanak?
founder of sikhism. "there is no hindu, no muslim"
What is amritsar?
city established by 4th guru.
What is the Golden Temple
In armistar. sacred skih shrine.
What is Adi Granth?
The first book of sikhism. complied by 5th guru. became 11th guru.
Who is Gobind Singh?
10th guru. established khalsa, society of sikhs.
What is khalsa?
society of sikhs.
What are the 5 K's in sikhism?
1) KESH-long hair/beard
2) KHANGA-hair comb
3) KACH-special underwear
4) KIRPAN-sword
5) KAVA-steal bracelet
What is Khalistan?
"Free land." seperate sikh state in Panjab.

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