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20th Century US History FINAL EXAM Terms


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1. Triple Entente
Great Britain, France, and Russia alliance in WWI
2. Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy alliance in WWI
3. Lusitania
Ship sunk by Germans
a. Weapons of war carrier
b. Had 128 Americans on board
c. Though warned, USA threatened Germany and ultimately led to war
4. William Jennings Bryan
secretary of state
a. Argued Americans traveling on British ship were guilty of “contributory negligence”
b. Wanted to prohibit Americans from traveling on belligerent ships
c. Resigned position saying USA was not neutral – called a traitor
5. Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee
a. Most popular man in Senate; Republican
b. Disliked democrats
c. Objected to League of Nations– would force Americans to fight foreign wars
6. John J. Pershing
led American Expeditionary Forces in France
a. Graduate of West Point
b. Fought in Spanish-American war; led expedition in 1916
c. Wanted troops in French to be separate from French and British divisions
7. Jane Addams
helped organize the American Woman’s Peace Party
a. Believed women had a special responsibility to work for peace and to speak out against the blasphemy of war because women and children suffered the most
b. Met in Zurich, Switzerland with other prominent women while statesmen met at Versailles
c. Led American delegation
i. Formed Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
ii. Addams elected president
8. Carrie Chapman Catt
: president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1915
a. Devised strategy to win women’s suffrage
b. Coordinated state campaigns with Washington office and directed workers
9. Bolsheviks
led revolution in Russia 1917
a. Changed communism from utopia to threatening subversive
10. Red Scare
American fear of spread of communism
11. Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian anarchists
a. Allegedly murdered guard during shoe store factory
b. Convicted but many believed they were sentenced only because of radicalism and appearance
12. John Scopes
Young biology teacher; broke Tennessee rule and taught evolutionary theory
a. Brought to trial and convicted
13. Langston Hughes
: poet and novelist from Missouri
a. Wrote bitter but funny poems using black vernacular to describe pathos and pride of blacks
14. Aimee Semple McPherson
faith healer who founded her own church
a. International Church of the Four Square Gospel in LA in 1927
b. Dressed as USC football player and yielded a pitchfork to drive devil away
c. First woman to hold radio license and preach on the radio
15. Alfred Smith
: NY Catholic Irish American
a. Democrat nominee for election 1928
b. Opposed prohibition
c. Religious prejudice played role Catholic vs. Protestants
d. Progressive, favored organized labor, defended capitalism
16. Kellogg-Briand Pact
wanted to outlaw war
a. French foreign minister Aristide Briand suggested treaty between US and France to commemorate friendship
b. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg in 1928 expanded idea to multinational treaty to outlaw war
c. 62 nations signed but treaty really depended on morals
d. Didn’t work but a good attempt
17. Charles Lindbergh
flew from NY to Paris in single engine plane – Spirit of St. Louis
a. 1927; flew alone and won $25,000
b. Symbolized triumph of individual and technology – became famous
18. First Hundred Days
FDR passed 15 legislations in first 3 months
19. New Deal
FDR believed it was states’ responsibility to provide for poor and unemployed
20. Roosevelt’s Three Rs
a. Relief: FERA
b. Recovery: economic stimulation, increase production, decrease unemployment
c. Reform: banking and stock market
i. Emergency Banking Relief Act
21. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC):
Combine work relief with natural preservation
a. Unemployed men between 18 and 25 worked on reforestation, road and park construction, flood control, and other products
b. Lived in work camps and earned $30 a month
c. Run by US army – called too military
d. Didn’t really help women
e. One of most successful and least controversial programs
22. Works Progress Administration (WPA
): 1935 – dealt with unemployment and its demoralizing effect

a. Employed 3 million people a year
b. Built bridges, airports, libraries, golf courses, and roads
c. Funded artists – only one per family
d. Criticized for hiring Communists – workers called lazy
23. Social Security Act:
1935- provided old age retirement insurance
a. A federal state program of unemployment, compensation, and federal grants for state welfare program
b. Paid by 1% tax on employees and employers
c. Federal grants to states to assist in caving for disabled and blind
d. Aid to dependent children
e. Excluded farmers and servants
f. Discriminated against married women
g. Failed to protect against sickness
24. Francis Perkins
FDR advisor
a. Became first woman ever to be appointed to cabinet post
b. Secretary of Labor
25. Upton Sinclair
socialist author of The Jungle
a. Ran for California governor
b. Promised to pay people over 60 a pension of $50 a month with finance program
c. Lost
26. Huey Long
governor of Louisiana in 1928
a. Promoted “Share the Wealth” program
b. Taxed oil refineries, built hospitals, schools, and new highways
c. Virtual dictator – controlled police and courts
d. Wanted to guarantee $2-300 income for American families and promised pensions for elderly and college educations for young
e. Funded by taxing rich and liquidated great fortunes
f. Assassinated
27. Charles Coughlin
Roman Catholic priest from Detroit suburb
a. Had national radio show
b. Supported FDR then attacked New Deal as excessively pro-business
c. Anti-Semitic
28. Cesar Chavez
: president of United Farm Workers of America in 1960s
a. Protected migratory farm workers
b. Launched nationwide strike on grapes
29. Adolf Hitler
Nazi dictator of Germany
a. Wanted to expand Germany to the east
30. Josef Stalin
ruthless USSR leader; came into power by eliminating thousands of opponents
a. Had absolute powers died 1953
b. Abandoned idea of communism in one country
c. After WWII, left behind men in countries to set up communist countries
d. Killed millions under collectivization
31. German-Soviet Non Aggression Treaty
treaty that two countries would not attack each other for ten years
a. Bought both countries time
b. Hitler wanted Sudetenland bus didn’t want to fight two front wars
c. Stalin bought time to continue industrialization after the downfall of WWI
d. Agreed to divide up Poland
i. Hitler: wanted West
ii. Stalin: East plus Balkan States and Finland
e. Abandonment of Soviet alliance with France
32. Munich Conference
1938 – to avoid a war
a. French PM (Edouard Daladier) and Great Britain PM (Neville Chamberlain)
b. Said Hitler could have Sudetenland if he doesn’t take more Czechoslovakia land
c. Czechs didn’t really have a choice
i. Hitler invaded 6 months later
33. Sudetenland:
north and west part of Czechoslovakia
a. Inhabited by Germans
b. Hitler believed they shouldn’t be under Czech rule
34. Winston Churchill
: saw Hitler for what he was
a. Believed Europeans should’ve protected Czechoslovakia
35. Lend-Lease Act
act of supporting sending aid to Britain without demanding payment
a. Destroyed fiction of neutrality
36. Dwight Eisenhower
led American troops in Morocco 1942
a. Republican president 1952
i. Promised to go to Korea and find out what prevented military victory or negotiate a settlement
b. Relied on CIA to undermine foreign governments, subsidized newspapers in other places, and assisted those who helped US
37. Douglas MacArthur
supreme allied commander in Pacific during WWII
a. Took Philippines in 1944
b. Had struggle with Truman in Korean War
c. Douglas called for air strikes against China while Truman wanted limited war
d. Douglas publicly claimed attack in Korea was wrong
i. Fired for insubordination
e. Organized amphibious landing at Inchon (Korea War)
38. Cordell Hull
Secretary of State under Hoover
39. A. Philip Randolph
: organized and led Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
a. 1937 – won recognition of union from Pullman company
b. Wanted to carry gospel of unionism
40. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
alliance of 12 nations vowing that an attack against any one member would be considered as an attack against all and would be met with force
a. First military ties with Europe since American Revolution
b. Aimed at Soviets’ desire to spread communism
41. Warsaw Pact
military alliance of communist nations in East Europe
a. Soviet Union forced satellite nations to sign
b. Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania
42. Eastern Bloc
group of countries controlled by Soviets after WWII
a. Satellite nations – supposedly independent but not
b. Yugoslavia, Albania, and those under Warsaw Pact
43. George Kennan
: chargé d’affaires at American embassy in Soviet Union
a. Expert on Soviet matters
b. Responsible for defining new policy toward USSR
c. Became known as Mr. X and published works in Foreign Affairs
d. Containment
44. Containment
policy of restricting the territorial growth or ideological influence of another
45. Truman Doctrine
first major application of containment policy
a. Responded to conditions in Easter Mediterranean
b. Said we should support the free peoples that the Soviet Union is threatening
c. Gave aid to Turkey and Greece
46. Marshall Plan
European Recovery System
a. Program of US aid to European countries so they could rebuild after the war
47. National Security Act of 1947
established National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
a. Combined military branches under one cabinet – Secretary of Defense
b. Restructured treasury/state department to be more efficient and be under presidential control
c. Increased power of executive branch
48. John Foster Dulles
secretary of state under Eisenhower
a. Led holy crusade to promote democracy and free communism
49. Averall Harriman
US ambassador to Soviet Union
50. Alger Hiss
called a communist
a. Was a New Dealer and assistant to Secretary of State
b. President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
c. Case about to be dropped until Nixon took it up – charged 4 years in jail
51. Thomas Dewey
Republican nominee for election 1944
a. Picked to win --- LOST
52. Nikita Khrushchev
filled Stalin’s shoes
a. Prime minister and party secretary
b. Sent letter to end Cuban Missile Crisis
i. Would remove missiles if US lifted quarantine and stayed out of Cuba
ii. Demanded US remove missiles from Turkey
53. Dean Acheson
US Secretary of State under Truman
a. Mistook China for Soviet puppets
54. Fair Deal
name for Truman’s domestic program
a. Raised minimum wage and expanded social security programs
b. Ratified initiative begun during the New Deal
55. Adlai Stevenson
1956 Democratic nominee
a. Called for halt to nuclear tests
b. Danger of poisoning the atmosphere
56. Flexible Response
Kennedy’s theory of dealing with Cold War against USSR
a. Eisenhower = all or nothing war
b. Kennedy = gave more options than all or nothing
i. We didn’t have as much atomic power as USSR
ii. Silly to retaliate for minor offense
iii. Communists had local or guerilla forces
iv. We’d be more nothing than all – USSR slowly take over
c. Increased conventional forces (Marine, Navy, Army)
d. Increased anti-guerilla force
57. New Frontier
Kennedy’s program to boost economy, provide international aid, provide for national defense and to boost the space program
58. Richard Nixon
1960 Republican nominee
a. Eisenhower VP
59. Robert McNamara
Secretary of Defense
a. President of Ford Motor Company
b. Used “whiz kids” and computer analysis
60. Dean Rusk
Kennedy secretary of state
a. Member of State Department
b. President of Rockefeller Foundation
61. Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuba, Spring 1961
a. Was supposed to lead to Cuban uprising against Castro
b. Disaster  disaster stopped by Cuban forces on the beach
c. Broke agreement of no Western Hemisphere interference
62. Peace Corps
Kennedy’s program; sent men/women overseas to assist developing countries
63. Lee Harvey Oswald
assassinated JFK – shot and killed a few days later
64. Great Society
Johnson’s reform program
a. Reduced taxes
b. Ensured civil rights
c. Aid public education
d. Provided medical care for elderly
e. Eliminate poverty
65. Medicaid
met needs of those on welfare and those who couldn’t afford private assistance
a. To Poor
66. Medicare
tied to social security system
a. Limited program to the elderly
b. To Elderly
67. Ho Chi Minh
Communist organizer and revolutionary
a. Led independence movement to expel Japanese conquerors
b. Established Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945
c. Ruled North of 17th Parallel
d. Founding member of Socialist Party in Paris 1917
68. Geneva Accords of 1954
French, Chinese, USA, USSR, and Vietnam
a. Laos and Cambodia are independent
i. Neutral in Cold War
b. Vietnam is independent
i. Divided on 17th Parallel
ii. North = Communist governed in Hanoi
iii. South = Anti-Communist centered in Saigon
iv. Elections in 1956 to unify Vietnam under one government
69. Ngo Din Diem
Fierce anti-Communist – not democratic
a. Ruled south of 17th Parallel (Republic of Vietnam)
b. Lost support in his country
c. Corruption and arbitrariness  assassinated during a coup
d. Oppression – no unification elections
i. Viewed as American puppet
ii. Catholic – country was Buddhist
70. Henry Kissinger
Kennedy Secretary of State
a. Optimistic about Vietnam peace
b. Brought peace by backing down – refused another $1 billion in aid to war
71. Paris Peace Agreement for Vietnam
peace talks under Johnson; NSA Henry Kissinger and N. Vietnamese foreign minister Le Duc Tho
a. Called for cease fire
b. Withdraw of troops from Vietnam
c. Prisoner of War exchange
d. Communists not take any more territory
e. Future of S. Vietnam decided by free and democratic elections
72. Plessey v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court declared segregation of blacks and white races were constitutional if facilities were “separate but equal”
73. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Oliver Brown sued to allow his child to attend a white school
a. Declared separate facilities weren’t equal
b. Local school boards should desegregate as soon as possible
74. George Wallace
Governor of Alabama
a. Openly supported segregation
75. Orval Faubus
Governor of Little Rock, Arkansas
a. Declared integration of schools would make it impossible to maintain order
b. Ordered National Guardsmen to turn black students away from white school
76. Rosa Parks
black seamstress, secretary of Alabama NAACP
a. Sat in front of bus in area reserved for whites
b. Refused to move to back
c. Arrested for violating segregation laws
77. Martin Luther King Jr
Minister of Baptist church
a. Became spokesman of civil rights protest
78. Medgar Evers
Black NAACP official assassinated after President’s speech on civil rights
a. Organized boycott of merchants in Jackson, Mississippi
79. Malcolm X
converted to Nation of Islam
a. Impatient with moderate civil rights movement
b. Black control of black communists
c. Said people should fight racism by any needs necessary
d. Assassinated by black antagonists
80. Jose Angel Gutierrez
formed citizen’s organization
a. La Raza Unida political party
b. Promoted Mexican American candidates for political offices
81. Title IX
: banned gender bias in federally assisted educational activities and programs
a. Made admission of women to colleges easier
b. Required schools to fund female sports teams
82. Kent State Massacre
in Ohio, antiwar protest broke out after Nixon announced his moves
a. Tension and protests grew, National Guardsmen called
i. Reacted to students by shooting
b. Four dead – two protesters, two innocent
83. Bob Woodward
Washington Post reporter
a. Broke the Watergate scandal
84. Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty:
a. These were designed to shoot down missiles
b. The agreement was made because if one side as better ABMs, they would almost certainly win
c. Both sides were allowed to have two ABM bases
d. Further research was prohibited
85. SALT Agreements
a. Placed a freeze on ICBMs and SLBMs
b. The US had more IRBMs and MRBMs in Europe
c. Also had more/better nuclear bombers
d. American missiles had MIRV technology [Multiple Independently-Targeted Reentry Vehicles]
i. Independently targeted warheads
86. Supply-side Economics
Reagan’s economic recovery program
a. Reduction of taxes would encourage business expansion which would lead to large supply of goods to stimulate the system as a whole
b. Criticized
87. Sandra Day O’Connor
first woman Supreme Court Justice
a. Under Reagan
88. New Federalism
Reagan’s program
a. Attempted to shift responsibilities from federal to state level
b. Eliminated federal funding and made grants to states to spend as they chose
c. Criticized
89. Bob Dole
Senate Minority Leader – 1996 Republican nominee
a. Lost
90. Geraldine Ferraro
Democratic member of Congress
a. 1984 – first women VP candidate for major party
91. George McGovern
Democratic nominee for President 1972 – lost to Nixon
92. Camp David Accords
Egypt would recognize Israel and Israel would return Sinai
a. Israelis give Palestinians limited self rule in West Bank and Gaza Strip
b. Didn’t amount to much – too vague
c. Angered Syrians and Islam fundamentalists
93. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI):
Reagan authorized this research
a. Set up satellite system to shoot down ICBMs
b. “Star Wars” program
i. Not ever developed
ii. Some people said it violated ABM treaty (no)
c. Didn’t work but caused Soviets to increase military spending to keep up
i. Lead to USSR collapse
94. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA):
Under Clinton, aimed to promote free trade among Canada, Mexico, and US
95. Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty
under Reagan and Gorbachev
a. Provided for withdrawal and destruction of 2,500 Soviet and American nuclear missiles in Europe
96. Nelson Mandela
South Africa’s leading black activist against apartheid
a. Jailed for 27 years
b. Laid groundwork for smooth transition to a biracial democracy
c. Peaceful elections  Mandela became President
97. Mikhail Gorbachev
: new Soviet leader
a. Realized need for greater accommodation with West
b. US arms negotiations would reduce their budget
c. Perestroika (restructuring economy) and glasnost (political openness to encourage personal initiative)
d. Lead to better US relations
98. Oslo Accords of 1994
under Bill Clinton
a. Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat
b. Agreement that promised Palestinians a step by step progression toward self rule
c. Lead to Israelis handing over control of West Bank to Palestinians

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