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chapter 11

Terms

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indulgence
remission of the temporal penalty in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven.
Martin Luther
From Germany. Went to University of Erfurt b/w 1501-1505. trained to become a lawyer. one nite, he was cot in t'storm and promised Saint Anne that if he made it out alive that he would bcome a monk. joined Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine in Erfurt. in 1517, he posted his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. He did not agree w/ the idea that an indulgence cuts temporal punishment in purgatory for those who have already died. felt salvation couldn't be purchased or sold. Popularized the belief of sola scriptura. Felt man is justified by faith alone. Believed that the only baptism and Eucharist were the only two biblical sacraments. Excommunicated at the diet of Worms.
Capuchins
Recognized by pope in 1528. Sot to return to the original ascetic and charitable ideals of St. Francis of Assisi.
Anabaptist
Radical group of reformers. Rejected infant baptism and believed soley in adult baptism. They believed that baptism performed on a consulting adult conformed to Scripture and was more respectful of human freedom.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
written by John Calvin. In this, he est. the definitive theological statement of the Protestant faith. This brought the idea of predestination to the masses.
Michael Servetus
Led the anti-trinitarians.executed in 1553 for blasphemies against the holy trinity.
Somaschi
Founded in mid 1520s. directed their efforts at repairing the moral, spiritual, and physical damage done to ppl in the war torn areas of Italy
Cardinal Wolsey
Chief minister of H8. He became Lord Chancellor in 1515 and was cardinal of the holy roman empire fired after not being able to divorce Henry and Cathrine
ecclesiastical reservation
This was added to the agreement that allowed Lutherans to retain to retain all church lands forcibly seized before 1552. This was intended to prevent high Catholic prelates who converted to Protestantism from taking their lands titles and privileges w/ them.
cuius regio, eius religio
This practice was est. in the Peace of Ausburg, It said that the prince determines religion of his region (Catholic or Lutheran only)
Anne Boleyn
One of Catherine's ladies in waiting. H8 cheated on Catherine w/ her.
Theatines
Founded in 1524. Formed to groom devout and reform-minded leaders at the higher levels of the church hierarchy.
Book of Common Prayer
A revised vers. of this was put in all churches after the 2nd act of Uniformity was passed. 42 article confession of faith and set forth a more moderate Protestant doctrine. Written by Thomas Cranmer. Tot justification by faith and the supremacy of of the Bible, denied transubstantiation, and recognized only 2 sacraments.
Conrad Grebel
Founder of Anabaptist faith. Performed 1st Anabaptist baptism in Zurich in Jan. 1525.
Exsurge Domine
Papal bull by Pope Leo X in 1520. It condemned ML for heresy and gave him 60 days to retract his statements.
six articles of 1539
These laws reaffirmed transubstantiation, denied Eucharistic cup to laity, reinforced celibacy vows, provded for private masses,and ordered the continuation of ORAL confessions (b/c as we know some people enjoy doing it orally).
John Calvin
Well educated son of a bishop in France. Preached about predestation, set up a theocracy in Geneva, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. Rejected all beliefs no specifically found in the Bible. His churches were plain and wyte, w/o altars, statues, images, organ music, or stained glass windows.
Diet of Augsburg
Called by Charles V. This meeting of Protestant and Catholic reps assembled to impose a settlement of the religious divisions. Charles V wanted all Lutherans to revert to Catholicism. As a result, the Lutherans formed the Schmalkaldic League.
Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote.' Was a Spanish cardinal, soldier, and tax collector. Imprisoned several times for padding his accounts. wyle in jail he began to write D Quixote.
Peace of Passau
King C5 reinstated the Protestant leaders and guaranteed Lutherans religious freedoms.
Anti-Trinitarians
Radical group of Protestants. Opponents of Calvinism, esp. its belief in original sin and predestination. didn't believe that God was triune.
Karsthans
He was a burly, honest peasant who worked hard to earn his bread and sacrificed his own comfort and well-being for others. Lutheran pamphleteers made him a symbol of the simple life that God desired all ppl to live.
Act of succession
This was passed by Parliament in 1534. It made Anne Boleyn's kids the legit hairs to the throne.
Submission of the Clergy
A law passed by Henry VIII stating that no church law could be written without the king's permission.
Ignatius of Loyola
Spanish R. Catholic theologian. Founder of the Society of Jesus. Opposed the Reformation. While recovering from a leg injury, he read church lit. and became inspired to be a soldier of Christ.
Barnabites
Founded in 1530.directed their efforts at repairing the moral, spiritual, and physical damage done to ppl in the war torn areas of Italy
Society of Jesus
a Roman Catholic order founded in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation.They were grounded to absolute obedience to the papacy.
John Eck
He was an Ingolstadt professor. He was ML's opponent in the famous debate in Leipzig in 1519.
Imitation of Christ
Book by Thomas a Kempis. In it, he summarized the philosophy of the Brothers. It was also a semimystical guide to the inner life intended for monks and nuns but it was also read by laity who wanted to pursue the ascetic life.
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in response to the Reformation. This council redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished various ecclesiastical abuses and strengthened the papacy
Modern Devotion
This was the movement by the Brothers of the Common Life. The movement was centered at the cities of Zwolle and Deventer Netherlands. The movement spread thruout northern Europe. It stressed individual piety and practical religion. The lay ppl were not expected to take special religious vows or to wear religious dress, and they did not abandon their ordinary secular vocations.
Gerard Groote
He est. the Modern Devotion in Zwolle & Deventer in the Netherlands
transubstantiation
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the Eucharist changes into the body and blood of Christ when consecrated
Thomas a Kempis
He wrote the book "Imitation of Christ." He was a member of the Bros of the CL
Thomas More
He refused to recognize the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Succession, and was executed. He was also a writer and wrote Utopia!
William Shakespeare
He started as a school teacher, which gave him a lot of knowledge about the Renaissance. Was an actor and playwright in Elizabethan literature; famous for originality of characters, diversity of plots, understanding of human psychology; he was a renaissance man in his appreciation for classical culture, individualism, and humanism; wrote comedies, tragedies, and histories.
95 theses
This was a document written by Luther. Posted on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517. Protested the against the belief that indulgences actually remitted sins and released the dead from punishment in purgatory. This doc. was embraced by humanists and other proponents of reform. Made ML an overnight celebrity.
Augsburg confession
The definitive statement of Lutheran belief made in 1530.
Spiritualists
This group led another radical movement. Most of the people in this grup were isolated ppl distinguished by their disdain of all traditions and institutions.
Ursalines
Founded in 1535. Est. convents in Italy and Fr. for the religious edu. of women of all social classes.
Ulrich Zwingli
Leader of Swiss reformation. Strongly influenced by Erasmus. Opposed the selling of indulgences and religious superstition. Became people's priest of the main church in Zurich in 1519. Didn't agree w/ clerical celibacy. His reform guidline: W/e lacked literal support in scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced.
Edward VI
Son of H8 and Jane Seymour. H8's only male heir.
Münster
German city where Anabaptists forced Lutheran and Catholics to either convert or leave. They then transformed it into an O. Testament theocracy.
St. Teresa of Avila
Spanish mystic who helped revive the mystic piety of the medieval monasticism
St. John of the Cross
He was a Spanish mystic who helped revive the mystic piety of the medieval monasticism
King Gustavus Vasa
W/ the support of Swedish nobility, he embraced Lutheranism, confiscated church property, and subjected the clergy to royal authority at the Diet of Vesteras.
Schleitheim Confession of 1527
Doc. that distinguished Anabaptists by their refusal of infant baptism, to go to war, to swear oaths, and to participate in the offices of secular gov.
ten articles of 1536
W/ these laws, H8 made only mild concessions to Protestant tenets.
John Tetzel
He was an indulgence preacher. He was appointed to do this b/c he knew how to stir ordinary people to action.
immunity of person
Privilege given to the clergy. Exempted them from the jurisdiction of civil courts.
Freedom of a Christian
Pamphlet by ML. He summarized the teaching of salvation by faith alone in it.
Reformation Parliament
Nickname for the Parliament that was called for a 7 year session that began in 1529. During this period, it passed legislation that harassed and placed royal reins on the clergy. This meant that whenever fundamental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult w/ and work thru Parliament.
John Fisher
He was the bishop of Rochester. Refused to recognize the Act of Supremacy and Act of Succession and as a result he was executed.
consistory
Regulatory court. Composed of of the elders and the pastors and was presided over by one of the four syndics. It enforce the strictest moral discipline.
cantons
Switzerland was made of 13 of these. This was another name for autonomous states.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Written by Max Weber. In it, he argues that the religious confidence and self-disciplined activism of the Calvinists produced an ethic that stimulated and reinforced the spirit of emergent capitalism.
Zurich
City in Switzerland. Zwingli became the people's priest at them head church fo this city.
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
This was a pamphlet written by ML that urged the German princes to force reforms on the Roman church.
treasury of merit
In 1343, Pope Clement VI proclaimed the existence of this. It was an infinite reservoir of good works in the church's possession that could be dispensed at the pope's discretion.
Edict of Worms
April 1521. ML presented his views before this diet. ML was ordered to recant his statements, but he refused, b/c he said it would be an act against scripture, reason, and his own conscience.
vernacular
Everyday lang. spoken by ppl. One of the major reasons behind the reformation was that ppl believed priests should be able to preach in this and not only church latin.
Schmalkaldic League
Defensive alliance formed by Lutherans in Feb. 1521 after C5 wanted them to convert
immunity of place
Privilege given to the Church. Exempted ecclesiastical properties from taxes and recognized their rite of asylum.
Defender of the Faith
A title that Leo X bestowed on Henry VIII b/c he defended the 7 sacraments and Catholic faith against the Protestant beliefs.
Pope Paul
Forced by Emperor Charles V to call the Council of Trent in order to reassert church doctrine.ur
Don Quixote
novel by Miguel de Cervantes. A survey of the entire fabric of Spanish society that can be read on several levels: as a burlesque of chivalric romances; as an exploration of conflicting views (idealistic vs. realistic) of life and of the world.
Decet Pontificem Romanum
Papal bull issued by L10 in 1521. It excommunicated ML.
Philip Melanchton
He oversaw the enactment of educational reforms that provided for compulsory primary edu, schools for girls, a humanist revision of the traditional curriculum, and catechetical instruction of the laity of the the Protestants, Known as the praeceptor of Germany
Peace of Augsburg
Sept. 1555. Made division of Christendom permanent. Recognized the law that said the prince chooses the religion of his land. It, however, did not extend official recognition to Calvinism and Anabaptism as legal forms of Christian belief practice.
Marburg Colloquy
1529. Attempted but failed to form an agreement between the Zwingli and Luther movements. It caused new Protestant groups to form.
Menno Simmons
Pacifist Anabaptist leader who founded the Mennonites.
Catherine of Aragon
Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and the aunt of Emperor Charles V. Did not bear Henry8 a male heir. She was married to H8's bro Arthur and married H8 once Arthur died.
Tetrapolitan Confession
This confession of faith was prepared by Martin Bucer and Caspar Hedio for presentation to the Diet of Ausburg as an alternative to Lutheran Ausburg Confession.
Oratorians
Recognized in 1575. Elite group of secular clerics who devoted themselves to the promotion of religious lit. and church music.
Mary I
She succeeded E6. She restored Catholic doctrine and practice in England.
Charles V
He was a Spanish king who was elected the HR emperor in 1519. He agreed to a revival of the Imperial Supreme Court and the Council of Regency and promised to cunsult w/ a diet of the empire on all major domestic and foreign affairs that affected the empire.
The Babylonian Captivity of the Church
Pamphlet by ML. In it, he attacked the traditional 7 sacraments, sayign that Btism and Eucharist were the only two biblical sacraments. He also said the authority of Scripture, secular princes, and church councils was stronger than that of the pope.
Spiritual Exercises
Written by Ignatius of Loyola. This was a training manual for spiritual development and strengthened people to follow the will of God.
Reformation
The 16th century religious movement that sought to reform the R.Catholic church and it led to the establishment of Protestantism.
William Tyndale
He trans. the N.testament into English in 1524 wyle in Germany. this trans. began to circulate in England in 1526.
Act of Supremacy
This declared Henry "the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England."

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