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NCE Study Guide


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Family disturbance has root cause in faulty communication.

Conjoint therapy is the belief that people do/did their best in any given situation
Structural Family Therapy

a family is a differentiated social system that develops identifiable patterns for how, when and to who each person relates
Nominal scale
most basic

expressed as names or numbers but w/o value
Ordinal Scale
order and direction of difference

best to worst, but no distinction of how much better or worse
Interval Scale
equality of units

equal distance between points

ex: thermometer, number line
Ratio Scale
Absolute zero & equal intervals

ex: height and weight
degree of relationship between two variables

-1.00 to +1.00

does not show cause and effect
Null Hypothesis
no true difference between groups
baasic human tendencies grow from within

Self Acutualization
Johari Awareness Model
examines degree of communication

Quadrant 1 - open - everyone knows
Quadrant 2 - closed - others know, person doesn't
Quadrant 3 - hidden - person knows, others don't
Quadrant 4 -blind - no one knows
extra linguistic features of speech, voice tone, voice quality & pacing
use of space and study of human factors
study of observable, isolable and meaningful movement in interpersonal communication
Freud - psychoanalytic
deterministic viewpoint

people are driven by instincts
Freud's techniques
free association
interpretation of dreams
parapraxia - freudian slip
analysis of transference
analysis of resistance
social forces have greater impact on behavior than biological forces

consciousness is the center of the personality and social interests

a basic feeling of inferiority is the driving force in humans.
Adler - Theory of personality
wholistic - individual is integrated and unified

teleogical - behavior is purposeful

self-determining - responsible for own feeling, thoughts and actions
Adler goals of therapy
1. establish positive sense of self esteem

2. challenge faulty assumptions

3. foster and cultivate social interests

4. encourage and motivate toward accomplishing useful goals
Rogers - person centered
humans are innately motivated to strive to reach their potentials.

humans are capable to resolve their conflicts but lack knowledge
Rogers - goals
there are none
0 - 2
motor activity
worldview based on experience
2 - 5
intelligence demonstrated through use of symbols

language matures

memory & imagination develops
Concrete operational
6 - 11 (elementary)

intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete goals.
Formal operations
12 - 19
intellegence demonstrated through logical use of symbols - related to abstract concepts
trust vs. mistrust
0 - 12 months


must form loving trusting relationships or will develop sense of mistrust
autonomy vs. shame
12 mo - 3

toilet training

learns control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well
initiave vs. guilt
3 - 6 years

continues to become more assertive, but may feel guilty if too forceful
industry vs. inferiority
6 - 12 years

must learn to deal with new skills and demands or risk sense of inferiority, failure & incompetence
identity vs. role confusion
12 - 18 years

teen must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics and religion
intimacy vs. isolation
19 - 40

young adult must develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation
generation vs. stagnation
40 - 65

each adult must find some way of satisfying support of next generation
Ego integrity vs. despair

culmination is a sense of oneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled
construct validity
to be able to adequately define and measure the hypothetical ideas by the tests, methods, & manipulations employed in the study
descriptive research
what some phenomena or events are like
statistical conclusion validity
to be able to reject or accept your hypothesis accurately with use of stats
internal validity
the causal relationships between independent and dependent variables by controlling the sources of error
probabilty of correctly deciding there is a true relationship, when indeed an true relationship exists
diathesis stress model
diathesis + increase stress = onset of disorder
dependent variable
effect - influenced by the dependent variable
independent variable
cause - the manipulated or controlled treatment
type I error
false rejection of the null hypothesis -
incorrectly conclude that a relationship exists
external validity
can research results be generalized?
steps in planning & conducting research
id issue
lit review
formation of hypothesis
research design
how to get data
collect data
analyze data
type II error
incorrect acceptance of null hypothesis when a true relationship exists and researcher misses it.
differential attrition
when more than one group is involved and attrition accross group is not comparable.

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