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marine bio


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kingdom monera
prokaryotic (no nucleus) a: bacteria B. blue green algae: cyanobacteria
kingdom fungi
marine fungi and yeasts
kingdom protista
one celled eukaryotic (with nucleus) plants and animals
kingdom protista a: phylum chrysophyta - golden algae
1. diatoms - silica 2. coccolithophores - calcite 3. dinoflagellates - organic test
kingdom protista b: phylum protozoa - one celled animals
1. order foraminifera - calcareous 2. order radiolaria - silica test
kingdom plantae
a. algae (multi celled types) 1. red (rhodophyta) 2. brown (phaeophyta) 3. green (chlorophyta) 4 grasses 5. trees
kingdom animalia - multi celled animals phylum porifera
sponges: pinacocytes, choanocytes, amoeboid cells 1. body plan 2. skeleton 3. classification
phylum cnidaria (coelenterata)
1. general chars: cell layers, medusa and polyp, nematocysts
cnidaria: hydrozoa
man o war, fire corals, hydriods
cnidaria: scyphozoa
cnidaria: cubozoa
sea wasps, cube jellies
cnidaria: anthozoa
hard and soft corals, sea anemone, polyp only
worm phyla
1. phylum annelida: segmented worms, bristle, christmas, feather dusters 2. phylum phoronida: horeshoe tube 3. phylum pogonophora: vent worms, no digestive system, chemotrophic
phylum bryozoa
moss animals
phylum brachiopoda
lamp shells, solitary bivalved
phylum mollusca
1. gastropoda: snails 2. bivalvia: clams, scallops, oysters 3. cephalopoda: octopus, squid, cuttlefish, chambered nautilus
phylum arthropoda
crabs, lobsters, krill, barnacles, shrimp
phylum chordata
notochord and gill slits: 1. agnatha jawless fish 2. chondrichthyes: jawed fish 3. osteichthyes: bony fish 4. amphibia 5. reptilia 6. aves 7. mammalia
recognizable, mappable, recurring
rocky shore
harsh environment, vagrant urchins, cucumbers, crabs, lobsters, octopus, hydroids, chitins, cucumbers, crabs, anemones, hydroids, snails, starfish
soft bottom
lagoon, marsh, grass beds: plants, deposit feeders, filter feeders
deep ocean
cold: fish, squid, crinoids
hydrothermal vents
hard substrate, 3000m, produce from bacteria, worms, clams, mussels, crabs, eels
coral reef
biological accumulation, wave resistant
reef components
framework, cement, sediment and landscape, open spaces
reef classification
fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls, patch reefs
natural controls on reef growth
temp, light, depth, salinity, water circulation, oxygen, nutrients, sediments, substrate, stability, emersion
lagoon: patch reefs, grass beds, sand reef crest: elkhorn coral, breaker zone forereef terrace: staghorn spurs and grooves forereef escarpment: finger corals, variety forereef slope: plate corals, sand channels deep forereef: fragile plates, sponges
reef destruction
natural: physical, biological, balance

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