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Geography 120 Final


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Alluvial Fan
a fan shaped deposit of sediments dropped by a rive or a stream flowing out of a mountain range.
Semiarid grasslands found in many parts of the world. Grasses are usually shorter and less dense in steppes than in prairies.
A form of pastoralism in which animals are taken to high-altitude pastures during the summer months and returned to low-altitude pastures during the winter.
A philosophical system based on the ideas of CONFUCIUS. a chines philosopher who lived in the 6th century B.C. Confucianism stresses education and the importance of respecting authority figures as well as the importance of authority figures acting in responsible manner. Confucianism is historically significant throughout East Asia.
The traditional Chinese and Korean practice of designing buildings in accordance with he principles of cosmic harmony and discord that are thought to course through the local topography.
A fine wind deposited sediment that makes fertile soil but is very vulnerable to water erosion.
pollution exporting
The process of exporting industrial pollution and other waste material to other countries. Pollution exporting can be direct, as when waste is simply shipped for disposal, or indirect, as when highly polluting factories are constructed abroad.
rust belt
Regions of heavy industry that experience marked economic decline after their factories cease to be competitive.
sediment load
amount of sand, silt, and clay carried by a river.
Shinto (p. 325)-
bound to the idea of Japanese nationality. Began as the worship of spirits. Subtle set of beliefs about he harmony of nature and its connections with human existence. Nature centered religion.
special administrative region
In China, a region of the country that temporarily maintains its own laws an down system of government. When Hong Kong was rejoined with China in 19976, it became a special administrative region, a position that it is scheduled to keep until 2047. In 1999 Macao passed from Portuguese rule to become China’s second special administrative region.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Relatively small districts in China that have been fully opened to global capitalism.

caste system
The complex division of South Asian society into different hierarchically ranked hereditary groups. The caste system is most explicit in Hindu society but is also found in other cultures to a lesser degree.
Dravidian language
A strictly South Asian language family that includes such important languages as Tamil and Telugu. Once spoken through most of the region, Dravidian languages are now largely limited to Southern South Asia.
Green Revolultion
Highly productive agricultural techniques developed since the 1960’s that entail the use of new hybrid plant varieties combined with large applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The term is generally applied to agricultural changes in developing countries, particularly India.
Hindu nationalism
A contemporary “fundamental” religious and political movement that promotes Hindu values as the essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society. AS a political movement, Hindu nationalism appears to be less tolerant of India’s large Muslim minority than do other political movements.
Indian Diaspora
The historical and contemporary propensity of the Indians to migrate to other countries in search of better opportunities. This has led to large Indian populations in South Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific islands, along with Western Europe and North Africa.
A religious group in South Asia that emerged as a protest against orthodox Hinduism around the 6th Century BC. Its ethical core is doctrine of nonijury to all living creatures. Today, Jains are noted for their nonviolence, which prohibits them from taking the life of any animal.
The seasonal pattern of changes in winds, heat and moisture in South Asia and other regions of the world that is a product of larger meteorological forces of land and water heating, the resultant pressure gradients, and jet-stream dynamics. The monsoon produces distinct wet and dry seasons.
orographic rainfall
Enhanced precipitation over uplands that results from lifting and cooling of air masses as they are forced over mountains.
Kashmir (p. 364)
A region on the northern border on India, Western border of Japan, and Eastern border of Pakistan that is an area of conflict. Control is an issue.
An Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu elements, founded in the Punjab region in the late 15th century. Most of the people of the Indian state of Punjab currently follow this religion.
a wide variety of tribal religions based on the worships of nature’s spirits and human ancestors.
Association of Southeast Asia (ASEAN)-
A international group of Asian and Pacific Basin nations that fosters coordinated economic development within the region.
The name given to native Malay (literally “sons of the soil”) who are given preference for jobs and schooling by the Malaysian government.
crony capitalism
A system in which close friends of a political leader are either legally or illegally given business advantages in return for political support.
domino theory
A U.S. policy of the 1970’s that stemmed from the assumption that if Vietnam fell to the communists, the rest of Southeast Asia would soon follow.
A city and port that specializes in transshipment of goods.
lingua franca
an agreed upon common language to facilitate communications on specific topics such as international business, politics, sports, or entertainment.
primate cities
The largest urban settlement in a country that dominates all other urban places, economically, and politically. Often, but not always, the primate city is also the country’s capital.
ancient Sanskrit epic ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki, considered to be based on historical events. One of the two great epics of India; depicts duties of relationships, portrays ideal servant, ideal wife, ideal king, etc.

The planned, government sponsored relocation of people from one area to another within a state territory.
A large tropical storm, similar to a hurricane, that forms in the western Pacific Ocean in tropical latitudes and can cause wide-spread damage to the Philippines and coastal Southeast and East Asia.
indigenous inhabitant of Australia
an island group. Many archipelagos are oriented in an elongated pattern.
Indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
A pacific Ocean region that includes the culturally complex, generally darker skinned people of New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Banuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji.
A pacific Ocean region that includes the culturally diverse, generally small islands north of Melanesia, Micronesia includes the Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, and Federated States of Micronesia.
Native Title Bill
A bill the Australian legislation signed in 1993 that provides Aborigines with enhanced legal rights over land and resources within the country.
A Pacific Ocean region, broadly unified by language and cultural trations, that includes the Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands, Society Islands, tuamotu Archipelago, Cook Islands, American Samoa, Samoa, Tonga, and Kiribati.
very large sea wave induced by earthquakes.
White Australia Policy
Before 1973, a set of stringent Australian limitations on nonwhite immigration to the country. It has been largely replaced by a more flexible policy today.

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