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Sociology: Socialization


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psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness
biological maleness or femaleness
grouping of students into different curricular programs, or tracks, based on an assessment of their academic abilities
Essential Aspect of who wer are, consisting of our sense of self, gender, race, ethnicity, and religion
the control of mating to ensure that "defective" genes of troublesome individuals will not e passed on to future generations
process thorugh which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a particular culture
process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future
anticipatory socialization
culture in which personal accomplishments are less important i the formation of identity than group membership
collectivist culture
stage in development of self during which a child acquires the ability to take the role of a group or community and to conform his or her behavior to broad, societal expectations
game stage
stage in the development of self during which a child develops the ability to take a role but only form the perspective of one person at a time
play stage
sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others
looking-glass self
culture in which personal accomplishments are a more important component of one's self-concept than a group membership
individualist culture
process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves and old role and enters a new one
place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead and enclosed, formally administered life
total institution
unique set of traits,behaviors, and attitudes, that distinguishes one person form the next; the active source and passive object of behavior
various individuals, groups, and organizations who influence the socialization process
agents of socialization
perpective of the larger society and its constituent values and attitudes
generalized other
behavior in which the person initiating an action is the same as the person toward whom the action is directed
reflexive behavior
ability to see oneself from the perspective of others and to use that perspective in formulating one's own behavior
role taking
statement designed to explain unanticipated, embarrassing, or unacceptable behavior after the behavior has occurred
action taken to restore and identity that has been damaged
aligning action
area of social interaction away form the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior
back stage
gently persuading someone who has lost face to accept a less desirable but still reasonable alternative identity
cooling out
assertion designed to forestall any complaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statement that is about to occur
sutudy of social interaction as theater in which peope ("actors") project images ("play roles") in form of others ("audiences")
spontaneous feeling that is experienced when the identity someone is presenting is suddenly and unexpectedly discredited in form of others
area of social interaction where people perform and work to maintain appropriate impressions
front stage
the process by which we define others based on observable cues such as age, ascribes status characteristics such as race and gender, individual attributes such as physical appearance, and verbal and nonverbal expressions
impression formation
at of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgements
impression management
set of indiiduals who cooperate in staging a performance that leads an audience to form an impression of one or all team members
performance team
deeply discrediting characteristic that is viewed as an obstacle to competent or morally trustworthy behavior
marriage within one's social group
marriage outside one's social group
family unit consisting of the parent-child nuclear family and other relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
extended family
two or more persons, including the householder, who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption, and who live together as one household
living arrangement composed of one or more people who occupy a housing unit
the practice of being married to only one person at a time
living arrangements in which a married couple sets up residence separate from either spouse's family
neolocal residence
family unit consisting of at least one parent and one child
nuclear family
marriage of one person to more than one spouse at the same time
approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that all human behavior can be considered either inherently good or inherently bad
official definition of an act of deviance as a crime
Theory of deviance positing that people will be prevented from engaging in deviant acts i f they judge the costs of such an act to outweigh its benefits
Deterrence Theory
Behavior, ideas, or attributes of an individual or group that some people in society find offensive
Theory stating that deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an offender, a deviant is an individual to whom the identity, "deviant" has been successfully applied
Labeling Theory
Definition of behavior as a medical problem and mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it
Approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that deviance is socially created by collective human judgements and ideas
large hierarchical organization governed by formal rules and regulations and having clearly specified work tasks
subdivision of low-level jobs into small, highly specific tasks, requiring less skilled employees
specialization of different people or groups in different tasks, characteristic of most bureaucracies
division of labor
tendency for people to refrain from contributing to the common good when a resource is available without requiring any personal cost or contribution
free rider problem
ranking of people or tasks in a bureaucracy from those at the top, where there is a great deal of power and authority, to those at the bottom, where there is very little power and authority
hierarchy of authority
process by which the characteristics and principles of the fast-food restaurant come to dominate other areas of social life
company that has manufacturing productioin, and marketing divisions in multiple countries
multinational corporation
a system of authority in which many people are ruled by a privileged few
potential for a society's long term ruin because of individual's tendency to pursue their own short-term interests
social dilemna
framework of society-social institutions, organizations, groups, statuses and roles, cultural beliefs, and institutionalized norms- which adds order and perceptibility to our private lives
social structure
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available (but limited) resources, creating disaster for the entire community
tragedy of the commons
percentage of people whose income falls below the poverty line
poverty rate
group of people who share a similar economic position in a society, based on their wealth and income
social class
movement of people or groups from one class to another
social mobility

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