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Western Civ 102 UA


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Louis Pasteur
: He developed the germ theory of disease & came up with pasteurization
Robert Koch
He developed pure cultures of human bacteria and described their lifecycles; got the ball rolling on disease research in Germany (Germ theory)
Ignaz Semmelweiss
sterilization, father of antiseptic procedures; wash your hands
Joseph Lister
sterilization of the wounds; chemical disinfectant to a wound would clean it; anti-septic principle
Charles Darwin
naturalist; Galapagos Islands- adaptation between each diff. island; On the Origin of the Species (1859) The Descent of Man (1871); Natural Selection
he asserted that all forms of life has arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck:
Scottish explorer who went into Africa. Heart of the nile?
David Livingstone:
medicine for malaria that didn’t work well
“The White Man’s Burden”; The Jungle Book; most influential British writer of 1820’s \'The White Man\'s Burden\': social Darwinism, imperialize and edify heathens; Our superior tech/religion
Rudyard Kipling:
: sent to the Congo by Leo II to establish trading stations, sign “treaties”, and plant Leo’s flag
Henry M. Stanley
imperialist, wanted Belgium in the Congo; exploited natives
Leopold II of Belgium:
): conference of European leaders (France & Germany- Bismarck) recognized Leo’s rule over a neutral Congo Free State & agreed to work to stop the slave trade in Africa
Berlin Conference (1885):
Open Door policy, instrumental in Panama Canal
John Hay:
US wanted this to oppose formal annexation of Chinese territory to prevent 1 Euro-power from dominating; didn’t want China to be divided up like Africa
“Open Door Policy”:
British were importing opium into China from India, Chinese were trying to restrict it; China was defeated in the wars and was forced to tolerate the opium trade
The Opium Wars (1839-41, 1857-62
French had to release this after the Franco-Prussian War (1871); they wanted it back
Austria and Russia both had interest here; Russians felt connection with Slavic people; Austria had a tight reign on Bosnia
The Balkans:
): linked the Monarchies in an alliance against radical movements; conservative
Three Emperors\' League (1873-78, Germany, Austria, Russia):
): secret alliance organized by Bismarck to neutralize tensions b/w the countries
Three Emperors\' Alliance (1881-87, Germany, Austria, Russia):
Germany and Austria (against French aggression) were allied (b/c Russia was flakey) and then Italy makes it the Triple alliance
Dual/Triple Alliance (1879-1918, Germany, Austria, Italy
Dual/Triple Alliance (1879-1918, Germany, Austria, Italy):
Germany and Austria (against French aggression) were allied (b/c Russia was flakey) and then Italy makes it the Triple alliance
“both sides promised neutrality if the other was attacked; done by Bismarck after Russia didn’t renew the Emperor’s Treaty b/c of tension in Balkans
Reinsurance Treaty⬝ (1887-90, Germany, Russia):
Germany didn’t renew the Reinsurance Treaty so France signed it w/ Russia; became military allies; was to remain in effect as long as Triple Alliance
Franco-Russian Entente (1894):
(severed all outstanding colonial disputes b/w UK and France)
Entente Cordiale (1904-1907, France, Britain, Russia):
: needed a powerful navy to be a world power; 1890 – The Influence of Sea Power in History
Alfred Thayer Mahan
revolutionary warship; represented advance in naval technology
H.M.S. Dreadnought:
the capital of Bosnia; where Franz Ferdinand was assassinated; a center for revolutionary sentiment towards Austria-Hungary
German general on the Russian front and he basically became the real ruler of Germany after he helped oust the chancellor in 1917
Paul von Hindenburg:
(suspended right to protest); gave government wide powers like censorship and requisition of buildings
Defence of the Realm Act (DORA):
organized private industries to produce for the war; controlled profits; allocated labor; fixed wage-rates; settled labor disputes; basically regulated British economy
Ministry of Munitions:
pissed off at Germany building up Navy b/c UK had to keep up by spending the “people’s budget” instead of on social welfare; created Ministry of Munitions; PM in 1916
David Lloyd George:
halted the Germans progress just outside of Paris; messed up Schlieffen plan
The Battle of the Marne (1914):
Germany said they’d back A-H but was wrong b/c their alliance was Defensive not offensive.
\'The Blank Check\':
heir to the Austria throne; killed in June 1914; A-H decided Serbia needed to be punished b/c of his death; made an opportunity to take the Balkans
Archduke Franz Ferdinand:
member of the Black Hand who murdered Ferdinand and his wife w/ a revolver
Gavrilo Princip:
Germany’s only plan of attack before WWI; attack France through neutral Belgium; 91% of army to conquer France in 6 weeks & then use trains to ship army back to Russian front; way to try and avoid a 2 front war
The Schlieffen Plan:

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