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Raymond Cattell


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complex statistical technique based on the concept of correlation which Cattell (and Eysenck) used to discover and investigate personality traits
factor analysis (uses correlation, correlation coefficient,etc..)
a method (exemplified in Cattell\'s research) that begins w/ collection of data, which then leads to hypotheses
Inductive reasoning
L- life record demographic data (age,gender,race, etc..)
Q- questionnaire Questionnaires where subjects rare themselves on various characteristics & also performance on self-report inventories
T- Test data is gathered in situations where subject doesn\'t know what aspect of their behavior is being evaluated
display of the many correlation coefficients that result when many sources of info (data) are intercorrelated
correlation matrix
systematic search of a correlation matrix in order to discover factors
cluster analysis
Cattell used a Nomothetic approach towards factor analysis-->2 types
R-technique and P-technique
type of factor analysis where many subjects are measured on many variables and the scores intercorrelated
type of factor analysis that traces the strength of several traits over a period of time for the same person
Cattell thought these were the building blocks of personality and are the most important concept in his theory
traits 2 types: Surface and Source
outward manifestations of source traits. These are the characteristics of a person that can be directly observed and measured
surface traits
constitute a person\'s personality structure and are thus the ultimate causes of behavior
source traits (causally related to surface traits)
genetically determined source trait
Constitutional source trait
source trait that is determined by experience rather than heredity
Environmental-mold trait
trait that determines how effectively a person works toward a desired goal. Intelligence is such a trait...2 types: fluid intelligence crystallized intelligence
Ability trait
general problem-solving ability that is largely innate
fluid intelligence
type of intelligence that comes from formal education or general experience. Most intelligence tests attempt to measure this
crystallized intelligence
constitutional source trait that determines a person\'s emotionality and style of behaving. Determine the speed, energy, and emotion with which a person responds to a situation
temperament trait
motivational trait that sets a person in motion toward a goal. Cattell postulated the existence of 2 types of dynamic traits: -Ergs -Metaergs
dynamic trait
constitutional dynamic source trait that provides the energy for all behavior, similar to a Primary Drive (hunger, thirst)
environmental-mold, dynamic source trait. Similar to secondary or learned drives. consist of: -attitudes -sentiments
learned predisposition to respond to a class of objects or events in a certain way. (career,sports,religion etc..) One type of Metaerg
concern for oneself that is a prerequisite to the pursuit of any goal in life. Organizes the entire personality
a tendency to respond in a particular way in a particular situation to a particular object or event. derived from a sentiment
Consists of 3 aspects: -learning -importance of early experience -syntality
Cattell\'s multiple influence approach of Personality Development
-classical conditioning -instrumental conditioning -structured learning
the 3 types of learning involved in personality dev\'t (Cattell)
type of learning in which a stimulus that did not originally elicit a response is made to do so.
classical conditioning
learning to make a response that will either make a reward available or remove an aversive stimulus
instrumental conditioning
type of learning that results in rearranging one\'s personality traits. Cattell believes this is the most important type of learning
structured learning
description of the traits that characterize a group or a nation
Cattell suggested 2 reasons for psychopathology:
1) an abnormal imbalance of the normal personality traits 2) the possession of abnormal traits that are not found among normal individuals
Cattell: empirical research -believed a theory of personality is of little value unless it can predict behavior
predictive science
Empirically, Cattell also believed that behavior is a function of a finite # of variables, and if those variables were completely known, behavior could be predicted with complete accuracy
criticisms of Cattell\'s theory include:
-too subjective -behavior is not as consistent as factor theories suggest -excessive emphasis on groups and averages
Cattell\'s contribution to the psychology field:
Beyondism: Cattell\'s proposal that scientific facts be utilized to create moral systems rather than religious illusions or philosophical speculation

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