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Ecology and Enviroment Test 2


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age of the earth
4.6 BYA
all extinct except for turtles
animals evolve from protists

650 mYA

originally not very advanced, but lots of variety 

ex. hydra (mini squid)  

in about 10 my the started to diversify, but still rare in number because of harsh conditions on earth
bacteria on earth
3.7-2 BYA
brush turkeys
make mounds, females choose the best mounds, get to lay and egg there if the male gets to mate with them. 
cambrian explosion


huge explosion of diversity resulting in the ancestors of everything we see today. lots of experamentation, so lots of critters we won't see again today.  

proof found in:
the Burgess Shale (canadian rockies) 520mya

evolution of the head and tail- perception, eating, and movement during the cambrian explosion
has cartilage
an alga which has a plus and minus gender. chloroplasts engage in a war killing 95% of them and the plus overwhelms the minus. compares it to romeo and juliet (102)
evolution of the gut- digestion and energy use
 during the cambrian explosion
colonial organism
sponges for example- can be put into a blender and will grow back together, because they are not fully dependent upon one another. they started to evolve the dependence however, as time went on and they aggregated together.
reproduction by bacteria by means of a pipe between bacterium
cretaceous I  
75 mya, angiosperms: flowering plants. new reproductive method, reliant on insects for reproduction
cretaceous/ tertiary
65mya space rock, birds and mammals take advantage
crossing over 
swapping of genes
current # of vertebrates
56,000 total species
reptile category, lizards, dinosaurs, crocs, snakes
2 copies of the dna- what is made in the female after sex, one from mother, other from sperm
early carboniferous

325 mya

carboniferous aphibians, like the euryops, frogs, toads, salamanders, they move out because theres food! insects have been around for 100 my!  

early devonian II  

armored fish, most fresh and saltwater fish, eels and sharks, JAWED FISH


earth habitable
elephant seals v the albatross v sage grouse
elephant seals gather and gather a harem, the albatross conversely remains faithful to one their whole life. the sage grouse gathers in a flek, females all go after one, copy each others preferences. 
end permian extinction


95% of all species extinct

50% of families gone

plants insects, reptiles going extinct, amphibians and marine life very hard hit 

energy hypothesis/ reproductive assymetry
Trivers: the sex which puts hte least amount of energy is rewarded the most by seeking quantity rather than quality 

pretty much everything else; plant, animal, fungi. generally require oxygen, hence their first appearance at 2.0bya 

first eukaryotes

mitochondria and chloroplast at 2.0bya

these first ones are known as protists 

sexy son, good taste theory
four commandments of mating system theory 

1. If Females can do better in a monogamous relationship, they will enter tht unless
2. the male coerces them otherwise.
3.If females do no worse in going with already married males, polygamy results.
4. Unless the already mated female

fungi and plants evolve from protists
500 mya
Hamilton-Zek parasite theory

females continue to remain choosey, do the traits represent disease resistance?

sometimes the extra features can hurt survival however. 

what gets sent for fertalization, just one copy.
hominid evolution I

4mya. The first step in evolution was standing upright, NOT brain development

specialized limbs 

jungle climate  
10mya lots of apes!


despite diapsid domination, synapids begin evlution into mammals 

Late carboniferous



late devonian

350 mya

lobed fish, coelacanth- possible predecessor of the amphibian

acanthostega- "fish with fingers" transitional form 

lek paradox
eventually if these birds keep lekking, there will be no difference between males and choosig will loose its purpose. 
life on earth
3.7 BYA
location of early animals
mostly acquatic, however, some bacteria may have lived on land
male/female ratios in oppossums    
trivers-willard; well fed opossums more likely to have males because they are more likely to have a harem.
multicellular life evolves
1 BYA, as told by fossils
25,000 ya extinct
skeletal with bones
~550 mya from burgess shale, ancestor of possibly al vertebrates, like the modern lancelet
evolved around 550-500mya from protists, used sunlight as their primary source of energy
problem with oxygen

highly electromagnetic, so it steals electrons, killing many bacteria because it basically acted like a poison. some bacteria adapt

little oxygen at 3.7bya

bacteria produce it as a byproduct of sunlight based metabolism aroudn 2.7 bya


singe celled organisms: bacteria mostly

10 times as much biomass as eukaryotes 


- the first single celled organisms

all sorts of shapes and sizes, some animal like, some plant like, some mobile, some stationary

reproductive assymetry
women are what prevent males from reaching their sexual potential. for the greater chance of carrying on liniage, have more males!
residual uncertainty
the fact that males will take care of children even though they have no idea if it is in fact their offspring or not.
development of segmens during the cambrian explosion
slipper limpet (crepidula forniaca)
begins as a male on a rock until another male lands on it, and then it becomes female, and so on. 

layer of bacteria living over a rock. over time, gets layered on top of, and crystalizes, forming more rock. continues outward. 

3.7 BYO 

Moller + Pomlankowski: the most symmetrical bodies are often the most attractive- least stress, better grooming, etc. Also did experaments with extended tails, etc. 
reptile category, all extinct, but mammals are descendents from them
the early devonian I
400mya- trilobites and others go extinct, ferns on land, arthropods evolve, 10-12 ft long marine scorpions
the ordovican
450 mya- moss on land, first fish, lots of armor, coral reefs
the permian


synapsids were the first big category because they werre good at thermal regulation, like dimetrodon. 

jumping genes, discovered by Hickey and Rose which can jump out of chromosomes and into others; parasitic genes often
triassic I


Diapsids the winner this time, dinosaurs! eventually evolve to take over water, land, and air.

triassic II   

225 mya

Gymnosperms: pines, firs, cycads, redwoods- seeds tolerable of dry conditions


Trivers- Williard

thought that there is someway for animals to control the gender- (the president phenomenon for example)

chooses based on whats best for the circumstances- its a way to have the most grandchildren

good condtion parents will have males, bad


thought that there is someway for animals to control the gender- (the president phenomenon for example)

chooses based on whats best for the circumstances- its a way to have the most grandchildren 

good-gene theory
ways of determining gender

1. by those around (slipper limpet)

2. by enviroment (temp or what not, not very advantageous, some fish and reptiles and such)

3. the mother chooses (monogonant rotifers- bees, wasps- unfertilized= femail, fertilized= male)


ways to find out humans mating system:

1. Study modern people and their habits.

2.Look at human history

3. Look at current simple societies to try to conjecture about the past.

4. Look at our closest relatives, the apes. (though we can't perform like they can)


when choosing is cheap vs expensive  
ornaments dominate when choosing is cheap, good genes dominate when choosing is expensive
xy chromosomes
start off x from mom. dad either contributes x or y. 

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