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Italy Midterm


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Title of a journal expressing the idea that the people were taking part in a new resurrection
It was associated with the Renaissance of the past
Italy in the Renaissance
Italy was a major connector in trade between Muslim world and western Europe
History of Political Division
-Southern Italy under the domination of Spain
-In center were the Papal states (until 1870 Pope was spiritual leader but also a king)
-North of Papal states were independent city states during Renaissance (but by 15th-16th centuries they bec
-discovery of new world took meditteranian away as the major economic center of the world
-coincided with a wave of invasions
-French came into Northern Italy, eventually moving into Rome
-Spain already in south, but challenged by ottoman Turks pushing up through Balkans and N Africa
Southern Italy from 15th to 17th centuries
Italy was on the front line of war between the Spanish and the Ottomans
Northern Italy in 18th century
North challenged by France, who was challenged by the Austrians.
-By 18th century austrians had control of the richest parts of Italy (particularly Milan - a huge economic and agricultural center)
Dynastic countries
Invading countries were dynastic (controlled by families)
-Bourbans in France and Spain
-Hapsburgs in Austria
Early 18th century Papal states
The papal states were gradually increasing in size
Early 18th century Southern Italy
-Spanish rule in the south came to an end when the Bourbans took over in Spain
-Became the empire of the two Sicilies
-now an independent state, but still closely related to Spain
18th century exports from Italy
Grain to north america from italy
Olive oil for lubrication of machines during industrial rev. 
18th century Italian economy
-Industrialization and increases in international trade
-increased demand lead to higher local prices and social unrest
-increasing pop. put pressure on the land, leading to larger farms
18th century reorganization of the state
-state had to develop military technology, which was very expensive
-needed effective systems of taxation and financial support to maintain military
-angered the nobility and church who werent used to paying high taxes
Napoleon arrived in Italy and defeated the Austrians
Napoleon moved on to Egypt, trying to cut Britain off from India. Austrians recaptured Italy
-By 1804 he is emperor of France
-Napoleon returns to Italy
-He took much of Italy, including the Papal states
-He forms two kingdoms, the kingdom of Italia and the Kingdom of Naples (where he put his brother in charge
-1810 is height of Nap.
-Napoleon defeated and Italy was again divided as in the past
-from this point on many Italians were trying to free selves from Austrian control
Politics after 1815
-Absolute monarchies
-Church had ton of power
-Repressive governments with high censorship (nothing challenging to religion)
-Started in 1830's
-He and others organized revolutionary groups to overthrow existing governments
-He organized an insurrection, but was sent to exile in london, where he kept in contact with nationalists
Nationalism in Italy
-Around the 1830s
-Growing sense of national identity was growing (through lit., opera, rediscover of history, etc.)
-Italians had nationalism, but there were still political divides
-A federalist
-thought italy should keep its states under a confederation of the existing rulers
-Pope Pius IX elected
-He relaxed things in Rome (declared sympathy with liberal reforms, released political prisoners)
-Great expectation that under Pius Italy would free itself from Austria
Rome before Pius IX
-Rome was a lively city until the 1920s
-A series of reactionary popes shut down theaters, carnivals, etc. 
Wrote bestseller predicting a new pope would come and revive religion and italy altogether
January 1848
Revolutions began in Sicily when a religious procession turned into an insurrection
-The result of economic depression from bad harvest that led to high food prices, unemployment, and social unrest
Reactions to revolutions
-King of naples panicked and offered constitution (many surrounding rulers followed suit)
-Uprisings in other regions, including Milan, where austrians shelled resistors but were forced to withdraw
Turning point for Italy against Austria
Austrians forced to withdraw from 4 crucial fortresses in northern Italy that gave them control in the past
-Pio IX said that as spiritual leader he couldnt be involved in war against the biggest catholic power in Europe (austria), so he denounced the war

Charles Albert of Piedmont
-took over for pope as leader of revolution
-but his army was too weak and was smashed by the Austrians in the First Italian war for independence
Mazzini 1848
-Took over after Charles Albert
-declared that they must not fight to pope or kings war, but the people's war
-Got strongest support in Tuscany, then Piedmont and Florence
Prime Minister Rossi
-Pio had established a moderate constitution, but it didnt really do anything
-Rossi was appointed by Pio but was assassinated in trying to open new government
-Pio and cardinals fled Rome to King of Naples, who had succeeded w/ counterrevol
February 1849
-Mazzini forms the Roman Republic
-Failed in Spring because Pio appealed to catholic powers to reinstate him in Rome (French and Austrians Invaded)
-Last republic fell in July 1848 (Venice)
Headed defense against french invasions in Spring 1849
-When his wife died he became the opitome of the oppression of the old governments and a hero
Kingdom of Sardinia
-The only remaining constitutional state
-Left in place as a necessary buffer between France and Austria
Believed capitalism and industrialization were inevitable for Italy
-1850 launched huge program of public investment in Piedmont (foreign investment mostly from london in banking, real estate, transport, etc.
Crimean War
1856 -Geopolitical system came to pieces 
-Britain and Fr. now allies against Russia (Br. concerned with Russian ambitions to control black sea, giving them access to medit.
-Austria didnt go to war with ally Russia, showing weakness
Weakened Austria
1856 -Italy now had hope of liberating Italy
-Problem in that there was till political division
Cavour and Emmanuel
-Both want expansion of Piedmont state, but dont want a populace revolution
-So they make Fr. their ally (dangerous because made GB suspicious that they were trying to restore napoleonic era)
-Deal made that France will support Piedmont against Austria, but France can't take the lead.
-Cavour provokes Austria until they give ultimatum and move in 
-French then come in under Louis Bonaparte and defeat Austrians
April 1859
-Without consulting Emmanuel and Cavour, Fr made armistice with Austia and withdraw
-Northern Papal states and North became part of Piedmont
-Pope still in control of the other Papal states
-Garibaldi involved here
April 1860
Garibaldi and his 1000 followers landed in the south, quickly taking Sicily
-By the time he was in naples (1st place of real opposition) he had 30,000 followers

Battle of Volturno
September 30, 1860
-First time Garibaldi defeated Napoleonic army
-After this he planned to march on Rome, but was blocked by the Piedmontese army.
-Gar. handed over control of Southern Italy to Emmanuel and retired
Kingdom of Italy Formed with Victor Emmanuel as king
Not in new kingdom in 1861
Rome: couldnt take it b/c would start war with France (Garibaldi would again try in 62 and 67 but failed both times)
-Italian army finally penetrates Rome
-Pio escapes to the vatican, where he denounces the new state and excommunicates Victor Emmanuel
-This created a huge rift btwn the church and state, effecting the legitimacy of the state in its early li
New government was facing major civil war in the south
Issues with early government
-Having real unity (in long run went well b/c no real issues with separatist movements)
-Maintaining independence: in a Europe of increasing national unity
-Il equipped for 2nd phase of ind. rev.
-Became allies with old enemy Austria and Prussia in the triple alliance (until start of WWI)
-In this to protect selves from France, with whom they are now enemies
-Also looking to expand in N Africa
Late 1800's relationship with British
British always assist the italian military. Their main naval base was at Malta, which gave them control of the Medit. Malta is just off the coast of Italy, so the British saw a stable Italy as good for this possession
2 waves of emmigration in 1880's
-In crisis of 1880's relatively successful farmers from north (mainly Piedmont) sold farms and went to Argentina, later spreading to surrounding countries 
-2nd big wave poor workers around venice went to Brazil after end of slavery
Years of Biggest wave of emmigration
12 million from 1896 to 1914
-Garibaldi's right hand man in 1860
-Became Prime minister from 1889-96 
-Started as republican democrat
-In 1861 gave allegiance to the king saying the republic divides while the monarchy unites

Crispi cont.
-believed in vital importance of education
-was an authoritarian
-most known for desire to get Italy involved in colonialism (place within italy for emmigration)
Italian Colonialism
Headed by Crispi
-First go territory in Eritrea and Somalia
-Embarrased at battle of Adowa in 1896 when Italians suffered massive losses, ending Crispi's career
-On hold until 1911 invasion of lybia
Early socialist party in Italy
-Formed in 1891
-By 1900 it was the largest socialist union in Europe
Economy from 1896-1907
-Italy's best years
-Markets expanding, emmigration took pressure off the land
-In 1907 the world market went into recession and the old problems resurfaced
-New Prime minister in 1901
-said italy didnt have resources to imitate great powers
-italy should focus on building economy not on colonialism
-developed public welfare programs (successful until 1907)
Church under Giolitti
1st attempts since 1870 to reach agreement with pope over divide
-done b/c needed the church to gain support of masses against rising Marxist socialist ideas
-Church had programs that unified people
Giolitti gave consent to Italian invasion of Lybia
-Said it was italy's last chance to establish national power 
-also said this place for emmigration
Divides over invasion of Lybia
-socialists denounced it (many young men refused to sign up for draft)
-huge support from middle class - also small but vocal nationalists - finally the church (missionary opportunity

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