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20th Century World History - Semester 1 Final


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After he defeated the Austrians at Sadowa, how did Bismark earn their good will?
He made an extremely favorable peace with Austria
After the initial advance into northern France in 1914, the Germans were stopped at the Battle of _______?
Bismark came from what part of Germany?
By 1900, who was the leading industrial nation in Europe
Hegel developed what analytical "tool"?
How did Rasputin become powerful at the Russian court?
He could ease the suffering of the heir to the throne, who suffered from Hemophilia.
How did the Luisitania sink?
It was torpedoed by german submarines.
How did the Prussians learn how to organize transport for their armies?
they watched the circus
Machiavelli was a diplomat for wat Italian city-state?
Napoleon III was instrumental in the developement of what holiday?
Cinco De Mayo
Russia surrendered to Germany in which treaty?
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Tacitus gave us most of what we know about what tribal people?
the Germans
The Russian front collapsed after who gained control of Russia?
The Three Emperors League included Emperors from where?
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia
The Treaty of London offered large tracts of land to what country, if they joined the Allies?
The unlimited use of what weapon led the US entry into the war?
The war over Schleswig-Holstein was between who?
The German states and Denmark
Though the English ended up with control, who built the Suez Canal?
The French
Waht was Bismark's secret treaty with Russia called?
The Reinsurance Treaty
What Austrian Arch-Duke did Napoleon III put in power in Mexico?
What British ocean liner was sunk by the Germans?
What country introduced the use of poison gas?
What did they call the Winter of 1916-1917?
Turnip Time
What do they call the idea of organizing entire societies to support the military?
Total War
What European nation joined Britain and France against Russia in the Crimean War?
The Kingdom of Sardinia
What fueld Bismarck's resignation?
After Wilhelm I died, Wilhelm II eventually became the new Emperor. Wilhelm II did not get along with Bismarck, and disagreed on all policies.
What historian is known for "wie es eigentlich gewesen"?
What is Bismark's plan for German unification called?
Little Germany (Kleindeutsch)
What is Double Envelopment?
A war strategy where army advances around opponent, encircling it and pinching inward. Became famous by Hannibal in battle of Cannae.
What is the Battle of Atrician?
a battle where the purpose isn't to win, but to kill all of the opponents until there are none left so you automatically win.
What is the Coup de Etat?
Illegal assumption of power, where the government is overthrown by a part of the state establishment.
what is the significance of bloody sunday?
it marked the beginning of the 1905 revolution.
what is the significance of the people's will?
students became enraged that they were imprisoning some, started terrorism and eventually asasinated emperor Alexander II.
What is Trench Warfare?
where both armies have static lines of defense.
What occurred between Izvolsky and Aehrenthal?
Izvolsky (Russia) made deal to give Bosnia to Austria in order to gain guaranteed access to the Mediterranean, Aehrenthal accepts because knows Med. is British-owned. Izvolsky realizes mistake, looks stupid.
What signified a "Blank Check" situation before WWI?
When the Germans under Kaiser Wilhelm II's rule told Austria they would back them up no matter what, and they could deal with Serbia however they wanted.
What small book is Machiavelli most know for writing?
The Prince
What soon became the chief economic weapon in World War I?
what was bloody sunday?
Jan 9, 1905. workers went to winter palace and led peaceful demonstration in attempts to change economical struggles, led by a priest who had police connections. when arrived, all killed by police forces.
What was Darwin's theory?
It was called Social Darwinism, and it involved survival of the fittest.
What was plan 17?
the French battle plan used for a war between France and Germany. Based on principle of "Elan Vitale" - vital spirit, france's motto for army.
What was promised to Bulgaria in order to get them to join the Central Powers?
what was significance of bols/mens split?
at first split wasn't expected to last, but eventually created two distinct political parties that were permanent for a long time.
what was significance of otkhodniki
migrations made them hostile about returning to the mir and being away from family. fueld 1905 russian rev.
what was the "people's will"?
group of college graduate students who made a mass movement to villages to learn about peasants and their simple wisdom. peasants/police confused, worked together to make mass arrests.
What was the Battle of Cannae?
Hannibal defeated Roman army, "double envelopment".
What was the battle of Solferino: who between, and who won?
France and Sardinia against Austria. Franco-Sardinian alliance won.
What was the Black Hand?
Secret terrorist/assassin society, Serbs trained under in hopes of gaining Bosnia.
what was the bolshevik/menshevik split?
occurred during 2nd congress, lenin disagreed with plans for capitalism then socialism. was impatient so decided to break off and create own group - bolsheviks, and go straight to socialism. mensheviks stayed rest of group.
What was the Brusilov Offensive?
France and Russia launched on Germans. Purpose was to relieve German pressure in France. reached the crest of the carpathian mountains.
What was the decline of the Ottoman Empire referred as?
"Sick Man of Europe"
What was the Dogger Bank incident?
Russian ships accidentally fired on British fleets (fishing boats) on their way to war with Japan in 1904. Almost caused a Russo-Britain war.
what was the Duma?
a national elected parliament established by Nicholas II in Russia.
What was the Ems Telegram about?
The French Ambassador visited the King of Prussia (King Wilhelm I), and threatened him/his heirs not to accept the Spanish throne.
What was the Gallipolli Campaign?
an attempt by British to open direct route to russia through Dardanelles. failed because of lack of cooperation between naval and land forces. Gallipolli was a peninsula: beach below cliffs, small --> caused problems.
What was the House of Bourbon's?
European Royal House who ruled Navarre and France until the overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
What was the Hungarian Revolution?
a spontaneous revolt against the communist government of Hungary. Began as a student demonstration, eventually government fell.
what was the intelligentsia?
a group of westernized educated elite, separated from the rest of russian society
What was the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies?
Land divided into the "Kingdom of Naples" and the "Kingdom of Sicily", both ruled by the Bourbons.
what was the mir?
village council who periodically redistributed narrow strips of land the peasants lived on.
What was the name of the British attack at the Dardanelles?
What was the Nivelle Offensive?
attack led by Robert Nivelle (French Commander in Chief). Planned to end war with few casualties. Was 2 simultaneous attacks: Arras, Aisne. Failed due to delays and info leaks, German defended well.
What was the North German Confederation?
A military alliance between 22 states of northern Germany with Prussia as the leader. Was building block for German Empire, and excluded Austria.
What was the outcome of the battle of Solferino?
It was a crucial step in unifying Italy. Also, it eventually resulted in the Geneva Conventions and the International Red Cross.
What was the Russian mobilizations in the beginning of WWI?
The Russian army mobilized from Russia to Germany when all the great powers were in war, causing the Germans to mobilize, which created a chain effect.
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
A German war strategy that followed Hannibal's Double Envelopment. Idea to advance in huge circle through Belgium and trap France.
What was the significance of Hindenburg and Luddendorff?
They created a military dictatorship in Germany, wanted to fight for total victory.
What was the significance of the Battle of Marne?
it halted the German's Schlieffen Plan.
What was the significance of the Battle of Sadowa in 1866?
It was the decisive battle in the Austro-Prussian war, where Prussia defeated Austrian Empire, and cleared their path for German Unification without Austria.
What was the significance of the Battle of Sedan?
Napoleon III (Emperor of France) was captured by Prussia, basically finalized Prussia's victory over France. Led to the siege of Paris.
What was the significance of the Battle of Somme?
useless slaugther, July 1916
What was the significance of the battle of Verdun?
useless slaughter, no land gained, mass amounts killed. April 1916.
What was the significance of the Big Four?
they met in Paris for the peace conference, and determined the fate of many countries.
What was the significance of the Ems Telegram?
Document used by the French as a pretext to declare the Franco-Prussian war in 1870.
What was the significance of the second Balkan war?
Serbia became a powerful country, threatened Austria-Hungary, providing an imporant cause for the start of WWI.
What was the significance of the Siege of Paris?
It determined the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, and led to the establisment of the German Empire.
What was the significance of the Wilhelm II - Nicholas II correspondence?
It showed that they regretted going to war, and also that they didn't have power in their countries anymore.
What was the site of the famous battle of attrition in 1916?
What was the spring offensive?
The last German offensive, in March 1918. It failed because germany first advanced too far, began to get halted and attacked.
What was the subject of Herodotus' book?
Greek/Persian Empire
What was the Treaty of Lusanne?
It replaced the Treaty of sevres. Turks lost most of Aegean sea to greece/italy. Turks became rulers of Asia minor again.
What was the Treaty of San Stefano?
a peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Russo-Turkish War.
What was the Treaty of Sevres?
dealt with non-european part of world, ottoman empire. Mustafa Kemal became president of Turkey, modernized country. Capital moved to Ankara. Greeks defeated in Turco-Greek War by Kemal.
What was the treaty of St. Germain?
dealt with austria. lost everything but vienna. created and unbalance economically because vienna had 1/3 of population.
What was the Treaty of Trianon?
dealt with Hungary. lost major territories, more than any other nation: transylvania, slovakia, croatia, vojvadina. had to limit army, pay for war.
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
It dealt with Germany's conditions after the war. It was the peace treaty that completely blamed germany for the entire war. Limited army and navy, lost territory, occupied Rhineland by Britain, France, Belgium, had to pay for war costs.
What was Turkey's importance when deciding allies?
They could have closed off the ring around central powers, but instead joined Germany/Austria which prevented shipping supplies to Russia.
What was Vico's contribution to the study of history?
Father of Anthropology
What was Woodrow Wilson's plan for peace called?
Fourteen Points
What was Ypres?
a place in Belgium where 3 huge battles took place, British troops drowned in mud under command of Haig. 1916.
When was Franz Ferdinand assasinated?
June 28, 1914.
When was the Armisitce of WWI signed, and who asked for it?
November 11. Germany (Luddendorff) asked for it.
When/why did US enter the war?
April 1917, Germans biolated international laws, provoked by sinking of american ships.
Where did Austria-Hungary mobilize to in the beginning of WWI?
Where did Bismark have Kaiser Wilhelm I crowned?
Where did England mobilize to in the beginning of WWI?
Where did France mobilize to in the beginning of WWI?
Where did Germany mobilize to in the beginning of WWI?
Where did the Crimean War take place?
The Crimean Peninsula
Which battle was Blackadder in?
the battle at Verdun
Which country suffered the largest proportional losses of manpower in World War I?
Which of the historians were German?
Who actually were in control in Germany after the beginning of the war?
Hindenburg and Luddendorf
Who allied with France, Great Britain, and Russia?
Romania, Greece, Italy, US.
Who allied with Germany and Austria?
Turkey and Bulgaria.
Who created a Coup de Etat in France/when?
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, December 2, 1851.
Who created the idea of "didactic materialism"?
Karl Marx
Who designed the world's first turbine based ship, inspired by what event?
Jackie Fisher, wanted to emulate what Japanese did to Russian navy at Straights of Tsushima.
Who did the Germans defeat at the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes?
Who established the modern reliance on primary source documents and spread the seminar system for teaching college history courses?
Who exercised the Battle of Atrician?
Germany against France, February 21, 1916.
who headed the legal marxists?
Petr Struve
Who introduced the ides of class analysis into the study of history?
Who is called the "Father of Objective (or Academic, or Modern) History"?
Who is known as the "Father of History"?
Who is the "father of communism"?
Karl Marx
Who published the Ems Telegram?
Otto Von Bismarck, deliberately editing it to provoke the French to declare war.
Who tried various forms of Christianity before turning against religion?
Who turned to writing history after he lost his job as a General for losing a city?
Who was Alexander Obrenovich?
He became the King of Serbia after his father, Milan, abdicated and moved to Vienna.
Who was an educated junker (poor and politically insignificant person)?
Otto Von Bismarck
Who was elected president of France in 1848?
Louis Napoleon
Who was Gavrilo Princip?
He was a Serbian citizen of Austria-Hungary who assasinated Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
Who was Kemal Ataturk?
He came into power in Turker after war, became president. created counter-government after turco-greek war which modernized turkey.
Who was Milan Obrenovich?
The first King of Serbia. Country had no real economy, Milan Obrenovich wanted to sell country to Austria.
Who was Naradna Obrana
The founder of the Black Hand
Who was Peter Kargeorgivich?
He became the King of Serbia after he assassinated Alexander Obrenovich and family.
who was Petr Stolypin?
idea of "strong and sober". encouraged peasants to separate from mir.
who was sergi witte?
Minister of Finance. commanded economic modernization/industrialization.
Who was the Gorilla war between?
British and Dutch
Who was the Sardinian Foreign Minister who is credited with Italian unification?
Who were Clemenceau and Lloyde George, and what signified their power?
Clemenceau became the prime minister in france, Lloyd George the prime minister of great britain. Their power indicated that war was totalitarian and demanded extreme measures/efforts.
Who were the Big Four?
They were the four leaders from US (Wilson), France (Clemenceau), Italy (Orlando), and Great Britain (Lloyd George).
who were the otkhodniki
seasonal migrant workers, traveled to work in factories.
Who wrote "Annales" and the "Agricola"?
Who wrote a history of the Peloponnesian wars?
Who wrote the "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"?
Who wrote the "Influence of Sea Power on History"?
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Who wrote the "New Science"?
Why did Napoleon III join in Sardinia's war with Austria?
He wanted to gain Nice and Savoy
Why did Napoleon III provoke the war with Germany?
He though it would increase support for his regime.
Why was Rasputin assasinated?
thought that his removal would weaken the resistance of the Tsar against the change in the governmental system.

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