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Intro to Chinese History Midterm: The Reckoning


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"Barefoot Doctors"
Lack of fully qualified physicians led to quickly trained men sent into countryside.  Improves rural health care.
"Four Modernizations"
Reform Era.  Agriculture, industry, science and technology, national defense.
"Manchu Way"
Seriously espoused first by Yongzheng.  Adherence to traditional, resistance to sinicization.
"The Lost Generation"
The Red Guards were sent to the country after the CR.  Had left education system.
"Three Bitter Years"
(1958-1961) GLF hurt food production, caused mass starvation.
1911 Revolution
More of a disintegrative series of mutinies.  Prompted by nationalist stirrings and military literacy.
Anti-rightist movement
Response to criticisms generated by Hundred Flowers Movement.  Consolidation move in which prison camps were set up, and intellectuals were sent for "re-education" and "reform."
Banner System
Manchu system developed as an administrative, military, and economic system.  Originally limited to the Manchu only, but soon came to include those loyal to the Manchu as well.  Distinguished between who had joined when.
Battle of Shanghai
(Aug.-Nov. 1937) Japanese face brutal resistance in industrial core of China.  60% of Jiang Jieshi's best troops die, dealing a crushing blow to the nationalists.
Block-out strategy
(1934) Nanjing government strategy to crush the CCP.  Involved a supply-choking, tightening perimeter.  Spurs Long March.
Boxer Protocol
(1901) Late attempts by empress dowager to regorm gov't.  Exams abolished (1905) and military educated.  Alienates scholar gentry, las support bastion.
Boxer Uprising (1900)
(1900) "Support the Qing, destroy the foreign."  Discontent with foreign bossiness + bad harvest, drought in North.  Gained empress dowager's support.  Crushed by foreign coalition.  Prompts Boxer Protocol.
Campaign against Lin and Confucius
Government led popular movement against these anti-revolutionary reactionaries.  Looked too fake.
Chinese Communist Party
(1921) Started as a small student group.  Eventually allied with GMD, but was betrayed by Jiang Jieshi.  Recovered during WWII and (having taken Manchuria) took over China by 1949.
Failing to be able to accupy China, Japan stuck with major cities and communication lines.  Nationalists flee to hilly country and establish capital.
Civil War
(1946-1949) U.S. peace brokering fails; supports nationalists.  Zealous Communist troops defeat WWII-weary nationalists, who flee to Taiwan.
Commissioner Lin Zexu
Upright Confucian gentleman sent to Canton to prohibit opium  Disposal of opium prompted Opium war.
Debate on "Spiritual Pollution"
Rapid change --> are we going too fast?
Deng Xiaoping
(1904-1997) Long March veteran who was rehabilitated after CR.  Emerged to full power to father Reform Era, modernize, re-establish relations with U.S..
Empress Dowager
(d. 1908) Cixi.  Halted Hundred Days' reforms.  Supported failed Boxer Uprising.  Oversaw late reforms which proved ineffective.
Keeps foreign nationals out of Qing jurisdiction.  From first of unequal treaties.  Signals imperialism, despite contemporary insignificance.
First Five-Year Plan
(1953-1957) USSR model.  Heavy industries set up i nsafe interior.  Stabilization achieved.  Prompts Hundred Lowers Mov't for CCP report card.
Four Treasures Project
Qianlong's compilation of Chinese works. Positions him as literati and allows a literary inquisition.  Source of many docs studied today.
General Yuan Shikai
(1859-1916) Military ruler of early "Republic."  Unsuccessfully tried to become Emperor. 
Great Leap Forward
(1958-1961) Prompted by Secret Speech, deterioration of Soviet relations, discontent of HFM, Mao launches this.  People's communes for new social org, backyard furnaces, close planting.  Fantasy stats misled him.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
(1966-1976) After GLF and sidelining, Mao pushed wayback into power with cult, military, youth.  Red Guards formed.  Anti-establishmet, ant "four olds."  Marred by infighting, suppressed by military, which gains power.  LG, S
Guangzhou (Canton)
Sole (theoretical) city for foreign trade in China prior to Opium War.  Flashpoint.
Hong Xiuquan
(1818-1864) Failed exam candidate who, convinced he was the other son of God, led the anti-Qing Taiping Rebellion.  Founded Society of God Worshippers, Heavenly Kingdom.
Non-Chinese muslims
Hundred Days' Reform
(1898) Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao convince yong emperor to institute reforms.  Squashed by Empress Cixi for fear of power loss.  Kang and Liang exiled, emperor put under house arrest.
Hundred Flowers Movement
(1957) Based on Zhou Hundred Schools of Thought.  CCP surprised by negative response.  Prompts Anti-rightist campaign, Great Leap Forawrd.
Jiang Jieshi
Takes over from Sun-Yatsen as GMD leader in 1925.  Turns on Communists after Northern Expedition.  Oversees failed campaign against them.  Withered by fight against Japanese, flees to Taiwan upon Communist victory.
Jiang Qing/Gang of Four
Mao's wife led CR, supposedly.  Cymbol; arrested.  Shows blame for CR problems, possible change of direction.
June 4th Incident
(1989) Student protests in Tiananmen square suppressed by military.  Students not fired on due to status, but other in surrounding area hit.  100s-2000 killed.  Economic reforms continue, but no social reforms.
(1662-1722)  Consolidated Qing power by defeating remaining resistors; sacred edict sets dynastic tone; intervened in Tibet; disastrous tax code revisions.
Korean War
(1950-1953) US bungles opportunity to reach out by prompting Chinese intervention with "volunteers."  Domestic radicalization, counter-revolutionary purge occurs.  Sino-Soviet relations warm.
Lin Biao's Death (1971)
Military right-hand man of Mao in CCR accused of plotting coup.  Dies in plane crash, allegedly.
Long March
(1934-1935) Under GMD pressure, CCP marches long distance and loses many members.  Flees North circuitously, found Red Capital at Yan'an.  Being a veteran of the March becomes a status symbol.
Maccartney Mission
(1792-1794) British envoy sent by George III to address trade imbalance with China.  Prompts famous response by Qianlong.  Opium eventually used to overcome deficit.
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Peasant origins.  Worked way up as rural party organizer to become a symbol of the party.  Oversaw PRC from 1949-1976, presiding over Cultural Revolution and Great Leap Forward.  Legacy questioned today.
May 4th Movement
(1919) Sparked by protests over Treaty of Versailles.  Carries on impulses of new culture mov't under influence of Western social theories.  Reaching out to rest of society.  Marxism rises to prominence.
Nanjing Decade
(1928-1937) Period of GMD control of China following Northern Expedition.  Faced problems like a lack of resources, a lack of social support due to tossing out Communists/lack of rural control, and problems w/ Japan.
Nanjing Massacre
(Dec. 1937) 100ks civilians raped, killed by Japanese soldiers frustrated over Shanghai.  Sore point in Sino-Japanese relations to this day.
New Culture Movement
Attack on traditions, Confucianism.  New Youth mag.  "Science and Democracy."  Criticism of weak Chinese culture in response to warlord era.  Liu Xun.
New Urban Elite
(c. 1910) Dealt with foreigners, worldly.  Dissatisfied with late Qing reforms, ineptitude.
New Youth
Magazine which led the New Culture Mov't.  Appeals to women, youth with articles on Republicanism, civilization, etc.
Northern Expedition
(1926-1928) A joint force of Communists and GMD swept north, reunifying the county.  The GMD generally fought (or negotiated with warlords) while the Communists mobilized social support.  "Anti-warlordism, anti-imp."
(1559-1626) Regarded as the founder of the Manchus.
Opium War
(1839-1842) Trade deficit with Britain, impact on society led to banning, disposal of opium.  Prompted British naval response and led to start of unequal treaties and extraterritoriality.
People's Republic of China
(1949) Established in mainland China in wake of Civil War.  As opposed to Republic of China in Taiwan.
(1736-1795) Stepped down to avoid ruling longer than Kangxi; made Tibet a protectorate/conquered Taiwan, Manchuria; encorporated minorities; commissioned four treasures project; responded to Maccartney mission.
Red Army
(1927) Organized after weakness seen upon betrayal by GMD.  Turns into PLA.
Red Guards
Formed during CR.  Young people show revolutionary zeal, persecute elders, "bombard the headquarters," "make revolution."  Lack of education meantime, but opportunity for more egalitarian society.  Infighting later.
Reform Era
(Late 1978/1979-Present) End of the Mao era.  Change of direction towards modernization, economic (but not political) liberty.
Responsibility System
Agricultural.  Private plots returned to peasants indirectly.  Some land transactions allowed, but ownership unclear.
Revolt of the Three Feudatories
In the 1670s, those rewarded for loyalty to the Manchu revolted premptively against a consolidated Qing state.  They were suppressed.
Russian Revolution
(1917) Chinese see another large, (relatively) underdeveloped country go Marxist.
Sacred Edict
(1670) By Kangxi.  Set puritanical tone for dynasty.  16 maxims promoting moral values and obedience to the dynasty.
Self-Strengthening Movement
Response to various rebellions of mid C19 and imperialists.  "Chinese learning as core/essence; Western learning only for utility/use."
Sino-Japanese War
(1894-1895) Qing defeated by smaller Japanese navy.  Leads to Treaty of Shimonoseki and sparks Spheres of Influence.
Special Economic Zones
Established to lure companies to coast with special tax benefits.  Makes revolutionaries cry.  Start in Lower Yangtze, followed by rest of coast.
Spheres of Influence
Euro-American influence less circumspect.  Colonization impossible - this is informal.
Sun Yat-sen
(1866-1925) Anti-Manchu, then anti-Chinese nationalist.  Returned from abroad to temporarily rule as provisional presdient of new republic.  Symbol.  Allied with Communists, adopted Soviet-style organization for GMD.
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
(1857) Capital in Nanjing.  Puritanical separation of genders, female equality, land equality.  Policies piss off scholar-gentry.
Taiping Rebellion
(1851-1864) Poor Qing administration, displacement from Opium War lead to anti-Qing revolt led by christian zealot Hong Xiuquan.  Suppressed brutally with foreign support.  Shook Qing.
The Four Olds
Ideas, culture, customs, habitats.  CR targets. Temples, libraries destroyed.  Tibet pissed.
The Xi'an Incident
(1936) Jiang Jieshi, thinking he'll oversee the end of the GMD, is betrayed by a discontent Manchurian general.  Agrees to focus on Japanese threat with united CCP front.  Arrests general, but world watches, so he keeps his word.
Tiananmen Square Demonstrations
(1989) Students protest, ask for changes, nebulous thing called democracy. Grabs world attention.  Leads to June 4th incident.  Nothing comes of it.
Treaty of Nanjing
(1842) Ends Opium War; cedes Hong Kong to Britain; levies indemnities; opens ports; leads to extraterritoriality.
Treaty of Nerchinsk
(1686) Jesuit negotiated treaty with emerging Russian state over border issues.  "First by Chinese to recognize another state as equal."
Treaty of Shimonoseki
Ends Sino-Japanese War.  Indemnity, cession of Taiwan to Japan.  Sparks spheres of influence.
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Cedes old German territory in China to Japan in lieu of racial equality clause.  Prompts May 4th protests.
Turkic muslims
Warlord Period
(1916-1928) After Yuan Shikai's death, no officials left to rule.  Power devolves.  Period of disillusionment
Wei Jingsheng
Former Red Guard who put up Beijing poster in end of 1978 calling for 5th Modernization: democracy.  Jailed.  Symbolic of democracy movement.
Wu Sangui
c. 1644   Seeing a) barbarous peasant had overthrown Ming, b) Manchu might be controlled, and c) possibility of authority, he let the Manchu through the north approach to the capital without a fight.  Rewarded with feudatory.  Traitor
(1723-1735) Qing emperor who supposedly came to power by altering a succession doc.  Espoused the Manchu way and formalized magisterial fees.

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