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Cross Cultural Psychology


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2 main goals of psychology
building a body of knowledge about people, taking that body of knowledge and applying it to peoples lives
a research method that tests the cultural parameters of psy. knowledge
universal v. cultural-specific theories and priciples
universal is true for all people of all cultures, and cultural specific is true for some cultures and some people
6 general categories in which culture is described
1. descriptive-diff. types of activities or behaviors ass. with a culture 2 Historical-heritage and tradition 3 Normative-rules and norms 4 psychological-emphasize learning, problem solving and other behavioral approaches 5 structural-emphasize societal or organizational elements 6 Genetic- origins of the culture
8 broad categories of culture
general characteristics, food and clothing, housing and technology, economy and transportation, individual and family activities, community and government, wlfare religion and science, sex and life cycle
is culture a uniquely human product?
No, animals and humans differ by 2 means language and complex social cognition
Ratchet effect
an improvement never goes backwards, it only goes forward and continues to improve on itself
a unique meaning and info system, shared by a group of people and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, happiness, and well-being, and derive meaning from life
society v culture
the fact the relationships among individuals, and society, individuals have multiple relationships with multiple groups, complex. Culture refers to the meanings and info associated with social networks
Factors that influence Culture
1-ecological factors- climate, geography, natural resources 2-social factors-population density, technolgy, type of government, religion, media... 3-Biological factors-personality...
Hofstede cultural dimensions
1-individualism v collectivism 2-power distance-degree to which cultures will encourage less powerful members of groups to accept that power is distributed unequally 3-Uncertainty Avoidence-degree to which people feel threatened by the unknown or ambiguous situations, and have developed beliefs, or rituals to avoid them. 4-Masculinity v Feminity- on one pole success, money on the other caring and quality of life 5-Long v short term orientation-degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material, social, and emotional needs among its members
Schwartz's values
1-emeddedness- degree to which cultures emphasize the maintenence of the status quo..that might disrupt the solidarity of the group or order=social order, respect for tradition, family security, and self-disicpline 2-Hierarchy-degree to which culture emphasize the legitimacy of hierarchial allocation of fixed roles and resources such as social power, authority, or wealth 3-Mastery-degree to which cultures emphasize getting ahead through active self assertion=ambition, sucess, daring, competence 4-intellectual Autonomy-degree to which cultures emphasizing promoting and protecting the ind idea and rights of the ind=curiousty, creativity 5-affective autonomy-degree to which cultures emphasize the promotion and protection of people ind pursuit pf pos experiences=pleasures and excting or varied life 6-egalitarianism-degree to which cultures emphasize transcending selfish interests in favor of the voluntary promotion of the wellfare of others=equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, and honsety 7-harmony-degree to which cultures emphasize fitting in with the environment=unity with nature, protection of env.
Social Axioms
general beliefs and premises about oneslef, the soc and physical environment and the spirtual world.
Leung and bonds social axioms
1-dynamic externality-=collectivist,conservative..outward oriented simple grasping of external forces that are construed to include fate anf a supreme being 2-societal cynicism-predominatly cognitive pessimism of the world confronting people=malignent outcomes caused by the world, ,,,
processes that are consistent across diff cultures, universal
processes that are diff across cultues, cultural specific
aspects of language that are specific to a particular culture
aspects of a language that are common across cultures
Beliefs about the underlying causes of behavior
process of learining about and being indoctrinated into a culture
acquiesence bias
tendency to agree on questionaries
context variables
operationalize aspects of a culture that researchers believe produce diffin psy variable.-unpacking studies
concept undrlying the procedure of back translation that involves eliminating any cultural specific concepts pf the original lang or translating them equal in the traget lang
ecological studies
phase 2, study in which countries or cultures not ind are the unit of analysis
extreme response bias
tendency to use the ends of a scale regardless of item content
ind. on the ind level. on cultural level, individualism refers to how a culture functions. ho eind may act in accordance with ind cultural frameworks
linguistic equivalence
semantic equivalence bw protocols used in cc comparison study (instruments, instructions..)
response bias
a systematic tendency to rspond in certain ways to items or scales
reference group effect
idea that ppl make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on scales. pples ratings will be influenced by the implicit comparisons thay make bw themselves and others.
linkage studies
phase 4.studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produces cultural diff and then empirically link that measured aspect of the culture with the dependent variable.
Cultural studies
phase 3. studies that use rich, complex, and in depth descriptions of cultures and cultural diff to predict and test for diff in a pschological variable
cc comparison
phase 1. study that compares 2 or more cultures on some psy variable of interst often with the hypothesis that one culture will have a significantly higher score on the variable than the others
unpacking studies
studies that unpack the contents of the global, unspecific concept of culture into specific, measurable psychological constructs and examine their contribution to cultural diff.
socialization agents
parnets, siblings, extended families, peers, school, church...
adapting and adoting a diff culture then what was previous encultured to you
authoritarian parent
expect obedience, and feel the child needs to be controlled =axious withdrawn
authoritative parents
sensitive to childs needs, firm, fair, and reasonable=creative, high self esteem
permissive parents
warm and nurturing to child, allow child to regulate their own lives=immature
uninvovled parents
too absorbed in own lives that they dont respond appropriatly to their child=noncompliant, and demanding
configurative culture
change occurs fast. both adults and peers socialize child. young ppl turn to each other for advice
postfigurative culture
change is slow. socialization primarly by elders.
prefigurative culture
changing very fast young ppl may be the ones to teach adults

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