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Euro Ch. 14


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geoffrey chauncers the canterbury tales
satire of clergy
problems that affected Reformation beginning
1. church based in avignon, not rome
2/ great schism
3. poorly education clergy
4. simony-selling o church offices
5. clerical pluralism/absenteeism
john wycliffes views
-questioned the worldy wealth of the church, transubstantiation, the teachings of penance, and the selling of indulgencesw
-urged his followers to read the bible and interpret it themselves
wycliffes followres
johan tetzel
dominican friar that was sent to preach indulgense throughout germany
albert of hohenzollern
needed to raise money because he was offfered another archbishop job so he sold indulgences and gave some money to rome to build church st. peters basilica
major points of 95 these
-german money going to rome-indulgences
-pope control over purgatory wasn't right-pope should only take away penalties he gave
address to the christian nobility
luther urged secular government had the right to reform the church
liberty of a christian man
luther hit on basic elements of luterhan belief: one is saved by faith alone, and the Bible is the only source of faith
example of luterhan patron
frederick the elector of saxony
why was luther not burned or anything when he burned the papal bull (an official decree given to him that demandded he recant hjis ideas or be burnt) ??
bc he had some important patrons who were sympathetic to his ideas, like frederick the elector of saxony
diet of worms
luther was called here by Charles V the holy roman emperor, who said he needed to recant what he said in his books and stuff and luther was like nahh i dont i believe everything i said and i dont accept authority of the popes and councils
what was the result for luther of the diet of worms
he was placed under ban of the empire ut stayed with the elector of saxony
what are the 7 sacraments of the catholic church
1. marriage 2. ordination 3. extreme unction 4. conformation 5. penance 6. communion 8. baptism
which 2 sacraments did luther keep?
baptism and communion
some of luthers other beliefs
rejected the idea of trasubstantiation, the transformation of the bread and wine into the flesh and blood of of christ, an act that could only be performed by a priest-claimed jesus was already present
-did away with the practice of monasticism and the insistance of the celibacy of the clergy
where were some places protestantism spread to?
northern germany, scandanavia, england, scotland, and parts of the neverlands, france, and switzerland
why did some german princes support luthers ideas
he didnt care about social order and so they knew it wouldnt hurt them
why did luthers ideas spread so much?
pope leo x didnt really care at first when the 95 theses were posted, he thought it was just between tetzel and luther, so the church didnt try ot stop it early on
German Peasant's Revolt
peasants revolted as a result of german peasants' worsening economic conditions and their belief that luther's call for a "priesthood of all believers" was a message of social equality
how did luther respond to the pesant revolt
he wrote a tract called "against the robbing and murderous hordes of peasnts" in which he urged that no mercy be shown to the revolutionaries: luther meant freedom from the authority of the roman church, he didnt mean to oppose the legally established secular gov't
invention that helped spread luthers ideas
the printing press
what did luther encourage german princes to do with church land
take it
why was charlves V unable to deal with the revolt in germany for a while
he was involved wars in france and with the ottoman empire
habsburg-valois wars
charles V went to war against france to fight for land-france wanted germany apart, especially bc of religious differences tghrough the region
peace of augsberg
charlvbes V agreed to sign it, which granted legal recognition of luteheranism in those territories ruled by a lutheran leader, while a cataholic ruler ensured that the terriroty remmained catholic-each prince determined his own religion for the region and everyone in the rregion had to follow it
radical reformation
a variety of religious sects that developed during the 17th century, inspired in part by luthers challenge to the established church
denied the idea of infant baptism
believed that baptism only works when it is practiced by adults who are fully aware of the recision they are making
what happened to the idea of anapabtism
rebaptism, the practice of baptizing adults, was declared a capital offense throughout the roman empire, which the pope and luther both agreed on
group who denied the scriptural validity of the trinity
ulrich zwinglis teachings
were similar to luthers
which of swinglis teachings were different from luthers
1 . denied ALL sacraments
2. bread and wine were a memorial of christs death, not presense
3. called for social reform
4. was a swiss patriot
institues of teh christian religion
where calvins main ideas are published
calvnis main ideas
-predestined fate
where did calvinism become the esblsihed church
henry vIII
supportative of the catholic church
"the kings great matter"
henry VIII tried to end his marriage to his spanish wife, catherine of aragon bc he wanted to marry anne boleyn and catherina didnt give him any sons. the pope wouldnt let him divorce catherina of aragon so he cut off ties from the church and england
act in restraint of appeals
declared that all spiritual cases within the kingdom were within the kings jrusdiction and authority and not the popes
act of supremacy
acknoloweded the king of england as the supreme head of the church of england
what did henry do to the monasteries in england
under the influence of his chief minster, thomas cromwelll, he dissolved all the english monasteries bc he wanted their wealth
edward VI
henry's son who was king after henry-protestant ideas were present
thomas cramner
booook of common prayer-used in services in the church of england
mary tudor
ruler after edward
-moved back to catholicism-fully restored roman catholicism, but many still held to their protestant beliefs
-killed seeral hunfred protestants "bloody mary"
marys sister
-was queen after mary
-started religious stability
-some people wanted the church to be catrholic, some wanted all catholic parts of the church eliminated=puritans
she did not care what people blieved as long as they kept quiet about it
index of prohibited books
created druing teh counter reformation-included works by writers such as erasmus and galileo
council of trent
-centerpiece of the catholic reformation
-was dominated by the pacy and in turn enhanced its power
-took steps to address frome of the issues that had sparked the Reformation,
council of trents accomplishments
-placed limits on the selling of church offices
-recognizing that the poorly educated clergy were a major problem, the council mandated that a seminary for the education of clergy should be established
-would not acknowledge protestant theology
-apporoved their traditional teachings (sacraments, the role of priests, and the belief that salvation comes with faith as well as works, and the source for this faith is the bibile and the tradiitons)
-began religious art--lead to baroque
ignatius loyola
organied the society of jesus (jesuits)
people during the middle ages
everybody was catholic
-people believed in pergatory-clense of sins-not in bible, bought indulgences, confessions
why was the 16th century church in trouble?
-all priests and monks were suppose to be celebit but cheated
-great schism (3 popes)
-babylonian captivity-wycliff and hus-church can't contradict bible
-northern renaissance humanism
why did luther's ideas spread more than wycliffs
printing press
year of the 95 theses
what did luther say about heaven/pergatory
said you can get to heaven by faith in jesus alone-says theres no pergatory bc its not in the bible
why was luther left alone at the beginning
charles V is too busy fighting with ottoman empire
why did so many german princes support luther?
saw it as an opportunity to not be controlled by charles V but mostly watned freedom from charlves V-can get church land by not being catholic anymore-give land awayto those who support him
was luther a radical or a conservative?
conservative: 1. follows bibile 2. peasant revolt
schmalkaldic league
group of princes to fight against charles V(protestants)-french sided with them
schmalkaldic league vs. charles v
2 choices of religion (peace of augsburg)
lutheran or catholic
calvins city
geneva, switzerland
did the catholics and luterhans like the anabaptists??
what did swigli belief about the bread and wine
jesus was symbolic in it
council of trent class notes
affirmed catholicism-reconverted protestants
-successful at bringing protesants back and stopping new countries from converting to protestant
parts of europe that were protestant and catholic after council of trent
3 class things protestantism
no saints, no pergatory, you can marry
why did the peasants revolt basically
lords raising taxes
when did the index of prohibited books coem out
during the time of the council of rent
3 catholic countries
austria, spain, france
name of charles V's empire
Habsberg empire-austria, spain, parts of belgium
what does calvin believe about the bread and wine?
jesus is therein spirit
english protestants who didnt want elizabeths protestant church to contain any catholicism
what did the council of trent keep
everything tehy believed in
who gives hhenry the idea to break from the church
thomas cromwell
what does calvin believe about church and state
what was the jesuits goal?
to stop the spread of protestantism by teaching people about catholicsm. they believed in listening to whatever the pope said
what did the council of trent believe in
-traditional things
some criteria for being in the index of restricted book or w/e its called
books of heresiarch or leaders of heretics, unless they were examined by catholic theologians and permitted
-the old testament tranlated into other lagnuages unless its permitted by a learned man
-translated doctrines as long as they say nothing against the doctrine

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