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13The Reformation


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What problems developed in the church in the early 16th century?
There was corruption and self-indulgence, church officials were living a lavish lifestyle, selling of indulgences was common.
What was an indulgence?
A paper granting you pardon for all your sins in exchange for money to the Church.
What monk allegedly nailed 95 Theses criticizing the sale of indulgences on the door of Wittenburg Church?
Martin Luther, in 1517.
What was the result of Martin's criticism of the Church?
He was ordered to Wurms, Germany, to defend his views. When he refused to recant, he was excommunicated.
What were some of Luther's ideas?
Faith alone will save you. The Bible is the sole source of religious authority/truth.
What church was formed by Luther?
the Lutheran Church.
What changes were made by Luther?
He simplified the sacraments to baptism and communion. He translated the Bible into the vernacular (German) instead of Latin.
What French lawyer moved to Geneva Switzerland to form a religious community?
John Calvin.
What happened to him?
He was likewise ex-communicated.
What were some of Calvin's ideas?
The Bible is the source of religious truth. That God shows his favor on the elect (chosen) by their success on Earth.
What was Calvin's idea of presdestination?
It was the idea that God already knows who is going to be saved/go to h-e double hockey sticks.
What churches came out of Calvin's ideas?
The Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, many Scandinavian Protestant churches, etc. etc.
Why did Henry the VII of England want to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon?
She had given birth to a daughter and he wanted a son. He wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, a lady in waiting.
What did Henry do when the pope refused to annul his marriage?
He pushed Parliament into passing the Act of Supremacy, making him the head of the Church of England.
What did the Church do when Henry approved this act?
It excommunicated him.
What church came out of Henry VIII's actions?
The Church of England (Anglican Church).
What Catholic Council in 1545 met to attempt to halt the breakaway of all these Protestant branches?
The Council of Trent.
What was the name for the reaffirming of Catholic church teachings called?
The Catholic Counter Reformation.
What was the Inquisition?
It was the Catholic church's inquests/trials of heretics (those going against Church teachings).
What was the Codex?
An index of forbidden books such as those written by Luther or Calvin or translations of the Bible.
Who were the Jesuits?
A religious order that spread Catholicism throughout the world.
What were the effects of the Reformation period?
(1)Religious unity in WESTERN Europe ended; (2) One hundred years of Religious Wars; (3) formation of many protestant churches.

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