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Ch. 29 American History Progressive Era


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Progressive Ideal
Government can be used to improve society if politicians choose to do so
Thorstein Veblen, Jacob Riis,
Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell
Thorstein Veblen
wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class, attacking conspicuous consumption (rich
ppl flaunting $ rather than seeking to help struggling)
Lincoln Steffens
wrote a series of articles called The Shame of the Cities which dealt with the corruption in city government, how public officials abused their office for personal gain
Ida Tarbell
wrote a series that exposed the working conditions, business practices of and personalities of the Standard Oil Company; her investigative reporting brought enough attention to Standard Oil for it to eventually be broken up as an illegal monopoly, but not yet
Muckrakers (so named by TR)
individuals who had the guts to expose through their writing the truth of what’s going on (Tarbell, Riis, Steffens...)
Things won by the Muckrakers
16th-19th ammendments; 16- graduated income tax 17- dir-ect election of Sen.; 18-prohibition; 19- women's suffrage
16th ammendment
graduated income tax
17th ammendment
Direct election of U.S. senators(whereas they were originally picked by the state legislatures)
18th amendment
prohibition, women’s temperance union finally get what they want
19th amendment
women’s suffrage, kicks in 1920
Muller vs. Oregon
changed women’s standing forever; the legislature in Oregon passed a law saying that no business could force a woman to work over so many hours, b/c they were breaking down and for health reasons they need to pass this law; big business sues, saying you can’t do that; S. Court rules in favor of Oregon, 1908
Lochner vs. NY
in NY they passed a law saying that all people who work in bakeries couldn’t work more than 10 hours because of respiratory problems because people had flour in their lungs, people were developing lung disease; in 1905, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Lochner
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
essentially a sweatshop; because management was worried that women were taking breaks, they locked the doors on the floor, but then a fire broke out, people run to the doors, but they’re locked; 146 people die, mostly women; some of them went out to the windows and jumped knowing they’d not survive; so horrific that when it was learned the doors were locked, the politicians passed strict new laws against such things, benefits workers
Hepburn Act
told railroad companies they could no longer give free passes or rebates ($ back) to company exec., b/c they were giving free passes to business leaders etc. if they used their railroads to move their stuffbribery!, big businesses were getting all the free stuff, smaller ones were ignored TR's baby
TR's nickname b/c he backs up the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the first to really do so, no longer all talk
Norther Securities Co.
owned by J.P. Morgan, huge railroad company; justice dept. was able to break it up; TR gets credit for break-ing up one of the largest trusts ever
Upton Sinclair
wrote The Jungle, abt stock- yards of Chicago & lack of sanitation w/meat; infl. TR=>
meat inspection act
Meat Inspection Act
take a wild guess...1st time congress takes an interest in
food sanitation, 1906
Pure Food and Drug Act
said you must truthfully label your food and medicine when you sell it; b/c so many
ppl're dying from quack cures
National Park System
Set up by TR; root of word conservative is conserve; certain things need to be set
aside for posterity
John Muir
head of the Sierra Club and infl. buddy on TR
Hetch-Hetchy Controversy
HH = natural H2O reservoir in Yosemite; San Fran. ppl want to use it but Seirra C.
says hell no, beats them out
in court; then famous 'quake
hits and are like, look, this is an emergency, we need the water; went around and around in the courts for a few years; finally John Muir decides that he’s won them over, so he decides to put it to the people in a referendum, when the votes were counted, people voted that they did need that water.
Economic Recession, banking crisis
TR faced with problem mainly because the banks were panicking; a few banks made poor decisions, had to close their doors, ripple effect of panic; progressives realize they might wanna pay
attention to the economy a bit
1908, next election coming up
Next election rolls around and TR is going to stand down, because he really has faith in Taft, the republican candidate, democrats, as usual, pick Bryant; Taft wins
2 things to know abt Taft:
1) is more of a "trust-buster" than TR
2)know foreign policy"Dollar Diplomacy"-dealt mainly with Latin America, the US would send millions of $ in foreign aid to keep Latin American countries in business, for which US’d know that the leadership of that country would back the US up, would open up their boarders to our big businesses to set up factories and trade; trouble is, you don’t really win any friends like that—they’re only your friends as long as you’re supporting them financially
Election of 1912
TR decides he doesn't like Taft actually and want's to run for reelection, doesn't get R. nomination, so he runs
as 3rd party candidate, the progressives, "Bull-Moose" party; democrats pick Wilson,
who wins
raised in Stanton VA, born at the tail end of the Civil War, tempered by the south; member of the Princeton faculty and eventually President of Princeton, approached to run to be Governor of NJ, and in 1912 the democrats approach him to run for the presidency; he won because the votes were split between Roosevelt and Taft

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