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Final Terms


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A 20th century phenomenon. It seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interests of the states. Absolutism gone to seed. Little emphasis is placed on God and religion. Elevated in importance (dosen't claim divine right) "might is right". Mind control is fair game and fatherland is very important.
The eternal decree by God, it is already determined. It is an energizing dynamic to undergo hardships still.
Balance of Power
The Movement of joining forces wiht other city-states when any one city-state gained too much power. This shifting of alliances has been practiced many times since then.
The Taille
A tax on land, provided what strength the monarchy had and supported a strong standing army. Tax base was too narrow for Francis's extravagant promotion of the arts and foreign policy. It lasted until the 17th century (Louis I).
A Republic
A political system in which, theoretically, power resides in the people. They in turn chose representatives to govern their city. Some of the Italian city-states attempted to form republics.
House of Lords
the wealther people made other part of parliament
Low Countries
Important sites of exchange of products, trade and commerce. Provoked pressure for reform in churches.
The Commonwealth
Aka the republic ex. Virginia
William Laud
The archbishop of cantebury who tried to make the Anglican church even more catholic under James I. He would be removed by Parliament.
Peace of Augsburg
1555- Charles agreed in which accepting the status quo he officially recognized Lutheranism. Each prince determine territories religion.
Mary Tudor
Had a sharp move back to Catholicism during her reign. She was the daughter of Catherine and Henry VIII and executed many protestants.
Francesco Petrarch
The father of the Renaissance, poet, and humanist. He invented the term Renaissance and Dark Ages.
James I
First Stuart king of england and a firm believer in divine right.
Concordat of Bologna
The 2nd new device- in which Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papcy over a universal council. In return the French crown gained rigth to appoint all French bishops and abbots. Understanding gave the monarchy a rich cupplement of $, power over church, and offices - lasted until the Revolution of 1789.
He simplified the liturgy and invited Protestant theologians.
King Francis I of France
1539- issued an ordinance that placed France under the jurisdiction of the royal law courts and French was the language.(had a powerful centralizing impact) He imported Italian Ren. art and architecture but spent more than could afford. He tried two new devices to bring up revenue.
Elizabethan Settlement
Required outward conformity to church of England and uniformity in all ceremonies.
Sola Scriptura
The authority rests in word of God as revealed in the Bible alone and nothing else is what should follow. The reader is his own interpreter.
Jules Mazarin
Appointed as Richelieu's successor. Italian diplomat. Served on council of state under Richelieu (had expierience) Cardinal and French citizen. Became a dominant power in 1643 when both Richelieu and Henry XIII died. He attempts to increase royal revenues led to civil war.
The Protestant Ethic
The Calvinistic virtue of hard work and thrift.
Those disenfranchised and heavily taxed individuals who were excluded from power within the Italian city-states. They wished equal rights and fair taxation. Once they gained power, they in turn commit the same discrimination as those that had oppressed them.
British gov. system
Spanish national taxes of the 16th under absolute monarchy.
Those who wanted to purify the English church of its Catholic-like elements and desired the elimination of the Bishops.
Henry IV of France
A politique who changed his name to Henry of Navarre. His life consits of fights, love, and drink. He wanted above all a strong and united France. He was recieved into the RCC, because of his willingness to sacrifice religious principles to political necessity saved France. Prepared the way for French Absolutism.
The Sforza Family
The Signori rulers of Milan franseco sforzo duke of milan. ruled harshly and dominated small cities in norther italy.
Administrative Monarchy
The French state in the 17th century became stronger in that it could achieve more of its goals, it was centralized from Paris and its administrative bureaucracy greatly expanded. AKA an absolute monarchy.
Northern Italian cities which were politically and economically independent from local nobles by their union of guilds. They became the new urban nobility built upon hard work, not just long-standing family names or feudal control.
The renewal of Greek and Roman ideas and the cultural achievements that began in Italy in 1350 that impacted art, architecture, science, literature, politics, and theology.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
A controller general of finances. He managed entire royal administration and proved a genius. The central principle = wealth, becon of France serves the state. Applied mercantilism.
holding of more than one benefice or office
Prince William of Orange
"The Silent", b/c of remarkable disecretion 17 provinces united under him in 1576
The Navigation Act
A law that said English goods may NOT be transported except on English ships. It promoted mercantilism for Cromwell.
The Constitutional State
constitutionalism government...meaning a government with checks and balances that is limited between an authority and civil rights...and has a constitution
Nobility of the Robe
The 1st new device- created a tax exempt class which held positions beyone the jurisdiction of the Crown.
Absolute Monarchy
Form of government in which all power is invested the the monarch and his advisers. Not democratic. Ex. Louie XIV "I am the state" eveolution of modern state between feudal monarchies and constitutional gov. of recent centuries.
30 yrs. War
Louis XIV
Longest reign of a king in European History. The French monarch reached its peak of absolute monarchy. development catholic. Revoked Edict of Nantes, sun king, absolutist king.
The Prince
This famous book of politics by Nicolo Machiavell shows how rulers should rule. It teaches that the end justifies the means. It is by no means Christian, but it is practical.
The Instrument of Government
Cromwell's constitution, he tore it up when it did not serve his purposes. Provided trieenial meetings of parliament and gave sole power to tax.
English Civil War
1642-1649, The war between the forces of the king and that of Parliament, The king's forces were called "Cavaliers" and that of Parliament, the "Roundheads", ended in 1649 and eventually resulted in the execution of the king.
Preachers are superior education and are required to do # sermons for # min long each. They encourage protestant form of worship where the sermon is the central part of the service.
Treaty of Utrecht
Spanish succession war ended 1713 and principle of partition was applied. It marked the end of the French expansions policy, completed the decline of Spanish power, expanded British enterprise and gave European powers experience in international cooperation.
Book of Common Prayer
Cranmer wrote it. It had order for all services of England.
Individuals who sin alienate themselves from God and his love (confess- penance and money) Christ and saints established a "tresury of merits" on which the church w/ relationship can draw. The Church has the authority to grant sinners spiritual benefits of those merits.
Cardinal Richelieu
Aka Armand Jean du Plessis became council of minister and president of council then first minister of french crown (1628). He had a strong influence over Louis XIII to exalt French monarchy as Embodiement of the french state. Set cornerstone of French asbsolute monarchy.
The Imitation of Christ
By Thomas a Kempis. It was writen for monks and nuns and was popular with the people. It takes Christ as the model and seeks perfection in simple ways of life.
Louisiana Purchase
When France purcharse, claimed vast areas around the Mississippi in the late 1600's for cheap and called it Louisiana.
A reformer yearning for salvation and reform of church. He was not a typical man of the time, and was a vowed friar not law and believed salvation comes through faith in Christ not penance or observances. Wrote Appeal to the Nobility of the German Nation.
Louis Joliet
The French Jesuit who sailed with marquette down the Mississippi to get land for France.
Long Parliament
The parliament through Charles I and Oliver Cromwell. Disapproved of the king's taxation without representation.
The Tuileries
Henry II castle for his wife, Catherine de' Medici.
Queen Margret
1559, she was a regent of the Netherlands and was appointed by Philip II (1/2 sister), and introduced the Inquisition.
Duke of Alva
Philip II sent him and 20,000 Spanish troops to pacify the Low Countries.
Czech and German in nationality, Lutheran, Calvinism, Catholic, and Hussite in religion, religious freedom. And 1st phase of the 30 yrs. war.
French calvinists who were tortured, maimed or murdered.
Tax Farmers
Agents who purcharsed from the crown the rights to collect taxes in a particular district.
Jaques Marquette
A Jesuit who sailed down Mississippi River and took possession of the land on both sides as far south as Arkansas for France 1608.
the belief that the revival of the ancient classics and a great emphasis upon learning, with man, not God, being the main subject of study. It studied man's nature and science. Though theologians of the time combined Christianity and this new learning, as the Renaissance progressed, it seperated itself from the church and theological studies.
Derives from pretest drawn up by small reforming German princes. The princes "protested" the decision of Catholic majority. (1st Lutheren- general term to all non-catholic christians.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Aug. 24, 1572- a savage Catholic attack on Calvinists in Paris. A religious ceremony of king's sister Margret of Valois to Protestant henry of Navarre marriage reconciled Catholics and Huguenots. Started the War of the 3 Henrys.
The Hagpsburg-Valois War
The conflicts between Germans and French over possession of much of Italy.
The Edict of Nantes
The Louvre
The palace rebuilt by Pierre Lescot who was commisioned by Francis I.
The Year of the Spanish Armada
May 9,1588
The Ursuline Order and Society of Jesus
Groups of men and women who focused on training and educating w/ a focus on Jesus. (catholic theology)
The Interregnum
1649-1660 The period of no king but a military dictatorship. Cromwell set up a theocracy. Though he was the head of Parliament, when head of state often ignored what they had to say. Seperated 2 monarchial periods.
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan leader of Parliament and eventually the head of state upon the death of Charles I. As a military leader he slaughtered thousands of catholics especially in ireland.
The Protectorate
The Police state under which Oliver Cromwell was head.
Lord's Supper
Defined by Ulrich Zwingli, memorial of the Last Supper and no change occurs in the elements.
Ulrich Zwingli
A Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus. He introduced refermation to Switzerland, and did not preach church readings A-Z. Town's civil authority support disagreed on various issues with Luther.
Gustavus Adolphus
A Swedish king, Lutheran, he intervened to support oppressed Protestants, Swedish victories ended the Hapsburg ambition of uniting all German states under imperial authority.
Holy Office
The sacred congregation of.!!!!!! Powerful instrument of Counter Reformation. It published list of prohibited books.
Edict of Nantes
Henry published this in 1598. It granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified cities. Helped prepare the way for French Absolutism in the 17th century by helping restore internal peace in France.
House of Commons
guarded the states pocketbook (england) made up of the common folk. Like hous of Representatives in USA.
Council of Blood
He interpreted "pacification" of the low countries to mean the ruthless extermination of religious and political dissidents, resovled financial crisis by levying a 10% sales tax on every transaction-caused hardship and confusion.
Book of Common Prayer
the official prayer and liturgical (woship manual) book of anglicanism. Charles I and Laud tried to impose it upon all protestand churches in england. Many resisted and scots hate it.
Low Countries
Courruption in the Roman Chruch and critical spirit of Renaissance provoked pressure for Reform. It was ruled by Philip of Spain.
The Fronde
The French Civil Wars of 1648-1653. Means "slingshot"/ "catapult". It originated in provinces and term applies to anyone who opposed the policies of the government.
Queen Maria Theresa
Louis XIV's wife whom remarried as a result of a diplomatic agreement with Spain- ruled without her political influence.
The Medici Family
famous banking family of Florence
Act of Restrain of Appeals
It declared king to be the supreme sovering in England. No judicial appeals to papacy- crown was the highest legal authority.
Jean Baptiste Lully
He was the favored musician of Louis XIV. Orchestral work was lively, animated with restrained austerity (french classicism) composed court ballets and operas. (powerful influence)
Nicholas Possin
Finest example of French classist painting. His highest aim was to represent noble actions in a logical and orderly, not realistic way. Famous work was the rape of the sabine women
Philip II of Spain
He was the son of emperor Charles V. He was in charge of center of Hapsburg empire and political center of gravity for all of Europe shifted to spain. The council of blood.
the limiting of gov. by law and a system of checks and balances between authority and civil rights. written/unwritten
War of the Three Henrys
A civil conflict amoung factions led by Catholic Henry of Guise, Protestand Henry of Navarre, and King Henry III- succeded Charles IX. Henry of Navarre won 15 yrs. of war.
Moliere and Racine
One was a stage name of Jean Baptiste Paquelin. He was a playwright, stage manager, director, and actor. He produced comedies that exposed hypocracies and follies of society. (Tartuffe) Careful social observation. The other wrote tragic love stories, conflicts of good and evil. He was a good example of French classicism.
the renaissance way of thinking that stresses a person in growing their personality, education and talents
The Paulette
An annual fee paid by royal officals to gurantee heredity in their offices.
War of Spanish Succession
War that was provoked by territorial disputes of previous cent. and involved dynastic ? of succession to the Spanish throne. 1701-1713 (charles II was sick and crazy)
To baptize again. Only adults make choices if baptize again not kids, religious toleration (only some), pacifism - they are big on it. They began it all, all the disagreements trace back to them.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
It ended the long conflict of the Hapsburg-Valois War and ended the era of strictly dynastic wars and initiated a period of conflicts in which politics and religion played dominant roles.
A collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities for the state.
They saved France ultimately. A small group of moderates of both faiths who believed that only the restoration of a strong monarchy could reverse the trend toward collapse.
The Noblity of the Robe
Presbyterian Chruch of Scotland
Knox established this church. The minister not the bishops governed, a calvinist doctrine, national church, and end papal authority and no mass.
Henry VIII
He divorced Catherine of Anne, 3rd wife died in childbirth, 3 more wives. He relegitimized Mary and Children mary elizabeth edward. wives catherine, anne, jane and 3 more. He ended the 100 yrs. war and his reign saw the growth of modern centralized bureaucratic style.
John Knox
He dominated for reform in Scotland. He reformed the church and was a passionate preacher. Was a model of Calvin's Geneva.
Mary Queen of Scots
A Roman Catholic and legal heir to the English throne. She was the rallying point of all opposition against Elizabeth. In 1586 she was implicated in a plot to assasinate Elizabeth. And in Feb. 18,1587 she was found out and beheaded.
Pope Sixtus V
He learned of Mary's death on March 24, slowness of comm., and promised to pay Philip 1 million gold ducats the moment Spanish troops landed in England.
Peace of Westphalia
It marked a turning point in European political, religious, and social history, recognized sovereing, independent authority of German princes. It stipulated that the Augusburg agreement of 1555 should stand permanently, Calvinism legally permimssible creed.
Groups of signori who ruled despotically-- usually merchant aristocrats. For a period of time, this group were limited by consitutions and laws. However, most of the time, they ignored the law.
Pope Alexander VI
The head of the papl states and father of the infamous, powerful prince Cesare Borgia, the subject of Machiavelli's book.
Depots or one-man-rulers-- princes
7 people from the society of Jesus. It was founded by Ignatius Loyola who saw the Ref. as a pastoral problem. It related to people's spiritual condition and developed into a hightly centralized organization.
Offices, usually held more than one, usually never went to the building.
Famous commercial cities in Italy
Genoa, Venice, and Florence
The belief that during mass the wine and bread become the actual blood and body of Christ. (fully present)
The belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change where God is fully present but the wine and bread don't transform.
Henry IV
King in 1589, had to deal with the mess of French civil war. Inagurated a great recovery and truly cared for the people (statue isn't torn down) converted to Catholicism = better relations with pope. He issued the Edict of Nantes (gain protestant confidence) and lowered taxes and kept france at peace.
Louis XIII
The king as a child after Henry IV's death. Maria de Medici headed gov. Ended Protestant Military and political independence in 1627.
Peace of Westphalia
It ended the settlement- (Catholics believed Calvinists and Lutheran could reconvert...) in 1648 and signaled the end of the medieval ideal. It also ended the 30 yrs. war.
Princely Courts
The entourage of the signori or "princes" who ruled many of the Italian city-states. They were in essence, mini-kings, with almost absolute power over his city. They were extremely powerful; they were the ones whom Machiavelli speaks of in his book The Prince.
Diet of Worms
They were treated greater b/c they were more powerful. They condemned Luther and teaching is not enforced. Vigourous defender of Catholicism but couldn't stop Protestantism effectively.
Peasant Revolt
12 articles or grievances that cited Luther and conformed to Scripture, slogans came from Luther, and Luther first backed up but then did not. The nobility crushed the peasants (75 thous.) in 1525.
French Classicism
The art and literature of Louis XIV. Late 17th artists and writers deliberately imitated matter and style of the classics (Ren. Italy) and possessed classical qualities of official style in Louis's court reached peak before 1661.
Charles V
He declared Luther an outlaw, no legal protection. he was a 19 yr. old Hapsburg prince who ruled after electors chose him as emperor. He was the last medieval emperor, inherited many claims to land, and maintained political and religious unity of Western Christendom.
Divided France into 32 districts and after 1634- each had a royal intendant that held a commission to perform certain tasks transmitted info from local communities to Paris and delivered orders from capital to these districts.
Edict of Restitution
All Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1557 were to be restored. Only Catholics and Lutherans could practice their faith.
The Duke aka Protestant Maximilien. De Bethune is the cheif prime minister to Henry IV. Revenues increased because of revival of trade. Subsidized the company for trade with indies. Started a country- wide highway system.
Robert LaSalle
1684, a French explorer continued down the Mississippi to it's mouth and claimed vast territories and the rich delta for Louis XIV- Louisiana.
The Five Big City-States
Venice, Milan, FLorence, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples
Counter Refermation
1540's- as a reaction to the rise and spread of Protestantism. It involved Catholic efforts to convince or coerce dissidents (heretics) to return to the church. Call on temporal authority- expelling or eliminating the heretic. It progressed simultaneously with the Catholic Refermation.
The Institues of the Christian Religion
These are Calvin's ideas that before God man is insignificant.
John Calvin
Had a greater impact on future generations than Luther. He studied law (impact of mind and later thought) He believed the body and blood of Christ are spiritually but not physicaly present (consubstantiation) and was the organizer of Protestantism, owed a great deal to Luther's thought.

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