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Biopsychology: Exam 2


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Experimental ablation (lesion study)
The removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of a laboratory animal; presumably, the functions that can no longer be performed are the ones the region previously controlled.
exitotoxic lesion
A brain lesion produced by intracerebral injection of an excitatory amino acid, such as kainic acid. This destroys proximate neural bodies but spares the axons of neurons that are passing by, this allows us to observe whether effects of loss of tissue due to one or the other.
Sham lesion
A "placebo" procedure that duplicates all the steps of producing a brain lesion except for the one that actually causes the brain damage. Used to asses whether incidental brain damage of procedure is causing behavioral changes rather than target lesion.
Stereotaxic surgery
Brain surgery using a stereotaxic apparatus to position an electrode or cannula in a specified position of the brain.
The junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures of the skull; often used as a reference point for stereotaxic brain surgery.
Stereotaxic Atlas
A collection of drawings of sections of the brain of a particular animal with measurements that provide coordinates for stereotaxic surgery.
Anterograde labeling method
A histologival method that labels the axons and terminal buttons of neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region.
A protein derived from kidney beans and used as an anterograde tracer; taken up by dendrite and cell bodies and carried to the ends of the axons.
Immunocytochemical method
Takes adcantage of immune reaction. A histological method that uses radioactive antibodies or antibodies bound with a dye molecule to indicate the presence of particular proteins of peptides.
retrograde labeling method
A hisitological method that labels call bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that form synapses with cells in a particular region.
A dye that serves as a retrograde label, taken up by terminal buttons and carried back to the cell bodies.
pseudorabies virus
A weakened form of a pig herpes virus; used for transneural tracing, which labels a series of neurons that are interconnected synaptically.
Computerized tomography (CT scan)
The use of a device that employs a computer to analyze data obtained by a scanning beam of X-rays to produce a 2dimensional picture of a "slice" through the body, brain.
Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI)
A technique whereby the interior of the body can be accurately imaged;using the interaction between radio waves and magnetic fields. Different from a CT scan b/c it can provide sagittal or frontal images as well.
A very fine electrode, generally used to record electrical activity of individual neurons. aka single-unit recording.
An electrode used to record the electrical activity of large #s of neurons in a particular regions of the brain; much larger than a microelectrode.
electroencephalogram (EEG)
An electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on/in the scalp.
magnetoencephalography (Squids)
A procedure that detects groups of synchronosly activated neurons by means of the magnetic field induced by their electrical activity; uses an array of superconducting quantum interference devices (squids)
2-deoxyglucose (2-DG)
A sugar that enters cells along with glucose but is not matabolized. Thus stays in the cell and can be used for observation.
A protein produced in the nucleus of a neuron in response to synaptic stimulation. Can be observed histographically to determine neural activation.
Positron emmission tomography (PET)
The use of a device that reveals the localization of a radioactive tracer in a living brain.
functional MRI
A modification of the MRI procedure that permits the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain.
A procedure for analyzing chemicals present in the interstitial fluid through a small piece of tubing made of a semi-permeable membrane that is implanted in the brain.
Sensory receptors-"" transduction-receptor potentials
The process by which external stimuli are communicated to the brain. The receptor is a specialized neuron that detects a particular category of physical events. Then sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials. A receptor potential is a slow, graded, electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus.
One of the perceptual dimensions of color; it is the dominant wavelength
One of the perceptual dimensions of color; intensity
One of the perceptual dimensions of color; purity or amount of differnt wavelengths present.
Changes in the thickness of the lens of the eye, accomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of near or distant objects on the retina.
The neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye. or the interior lining of the back of the eye.
One of the receptor cells of the retina; sensitive to light of low intensity.
One of the receptor cells of the retina; maximally sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision.
One of the receptor cells of the retina; tranduces photic energy into electrical potentials.
The region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals. Color-sensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found in the fovea.
optic disk
The location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve; form blindspot
bipolar cell
A bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina, conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
ganglion cell
A neuron located in the retina that recieves visual information from bipolar cells; its axons give rise to the optic nerve
Horizontal cell
A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer proceses of the bipolar cells.
amacrine cell
A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the inner processes of the bipolar cells.
A layer of membrane containing photopigments; found in rods and cones of the retina
A protein dye bonded to retinal, a substance derived from vitamin A, responsible for transduction of visual information. Created by protein opsin and lipid retinal.
A particular opsin found in rods
Action potential in vision
light is detected by the photoreceptor which hyperpolarizes the membrane causing it to release less neurotransmitter. B/C the neurotrans. usually hyperpolarizes the membrane of the bipolar cell it in turn depolarizes causing it to release more neurotransmitter which excites the ganglion cell.
dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus
nucleus in the thalamus which recieves input from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex.
magnocellular layer
One of the inner two layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits info neccessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small diff. in brightness to primary visual cortex.
parvocellular layer
One of the four outer layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits info necc. for perception of color and fine details to primary visual cortex.
koniocellular sublayer
One of the sublayers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus found ventral to each of the magnocellular and parvo cellular layers. Transmits info from short-wavelength (blue) cones to the primary visual cortex
calcarine fissure
A horizontal fissure on the inner surface of the posterior cerebral cortex; the location of the primary visual cortez.
Striate cortex
primary visual cortex
optic chiasm
a cross shaped connection between the optic nerves, located below the base of the brain, just anterior to the pituitary gland. Creates contralateral transmission of visual field info.
cytochrome oxidase (CO) blob
The central region of a module of the primary visual cortex. Contains wavelength sensitive neurons, part of the parvocellular system. Neurons in the blobs are sensitive to color and low frequency sine wave grating, neurons between the blobs are sensitive to sine wave gratings of higher frequency, orientation, retinal disparity and movement.
Ocular dominance
The extent to which a particular neuron recieves more input from one eye than from the other.
extrastriate cortex
A region of the visual association cortex; recieves fibers from the striate cortez and from the superior colliculi and prjects to the inferior temporal lobe.
dorsal stream (where)
A system of interconnected regions of the visual cortex involved in the perception of SPATIAL LOCATION, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the posterior parietal cortex.
Ventral stream (what)
A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of FORM, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the inferior temporal cortex.
color constancy
The relatively constant appearance of colors of objects viewed under varying lighting conditions. damage to area V4 of the extrastriate cortex affects this.
Inability to discriminate among different hues, caused by damage to the visual association cortex. (area V8 or TEO) in the inferior termporal cortex.
inferior temporal cortex
In primates the highest level of the ventral stream, located on the inferior portion of the temporal lobe.
Visual agnosia
Deficits in visual perception in the absence of blindness
apperceptive visual agnosia
Failure to percieve objects, even though visual acuity is relatively normal.
Failure to recognize particular people by sight of their faces. caused by damage to the fusiform face area.
fusiform face area
A region of the extrastriate cortex located at the base of the brain. Involved in perception of faces and other learned complex recognition. i.e. bird expert.
Associative visual agnosia
Inability to identify objects that are percieved visually even though the form of the percieved object can be drawn or matched with similar objects. Indicates damage to pathways between visual and speech.
optic flow
The complez motion of points int he visual field caused by relative movement between the observer and the environment. Area V5a or MST for medial superior temporal is responsible for responding and analyzing complex movement such as radial, circular and spiral motion.
inability to percieve movement, caused by damage to area V5a (also called MST) of the visual association cortex.
Damage to area V5
disrupts ability to percieve movement.
Damage to the posterior parietal cortex
disrupts perception of spatial location
frequency of sound
intensity of sound
complexity of sound/ or purity
tympanic membrane
the eardrum, vibrates with sound, behind which lies a hollow region, middle ear, which contain the bones (ossicles) which are set into vibration by the tympanic membrane.
One of the three bones of the middle ear: malleus, incus, stapes
the "hammer"; the first of the three ossicles
the "anvil"; the second of the three ossicles
the "stirrup"; the last of the three ossicles
Snail shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transducing mechanisms. receptors.
oval window
An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea that reveals a membrane,against which the baseplate of the stapes presses, transmitting sound vibrations into the fluid within the cochlea.
organ of Corti
The sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells.also consists of tectorial membrane
hair cell
The receptive cell of the auditory apparatus; anchored via rodlike Deiter's cells, to the basilar membrane.
basilar membrane
A membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear, contains the organ or Corti. Sound waves cause the basilar membrane to move relative to the tectorial membrane, which bends the cilia of hair cells producing receptor potentials.
tectorial membrane
A membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move.
round window
An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea of the inner ear that permits vibrations to be transmitted, via the oval window into the fluid of the cochlea. Moves opposite of oval window...if the baseplate of the stapes pushes in the membrane behind the round window bulges out.
A hairlike appendage of a cell involved in movement or in transducing sensory information; found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular system. Hair cells form synapses with dendrites of bipolar neurons whose axons bring auditory information to the brain.
tip link
An elastic filament that attaches the tip of one cilium to the side of the adjacent cilium
Insertional plaque
The point of attachment of a tip link to a cilium. receptor potentials are triggered here.
cochlear nerve
The branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information from teh cochlea to the brain. Inner hair cells of primary importance in transmission of auditory info. to central nervous system,axons are thick and myelinated.
Action potential in Audition (Cochlear nerve Axon)
Movement of the bundle of cilia towards the tallest increases firing rate of the cochlear nerve axon attached to the hair cell.This increases tension on the tip links which opens ion channels and increases influx of k+ and Ca2+ ions. Movement away from the tallest one decreases firing rate of cochlear nerve axon.Removes tension from the tip links which permits ion channels to close, stopping the influx of cations. At normal position probablility of open channels is 10 percent.
Olivocochlear bundle
A bundle of efferent axons that travel from the olivary complex of the medulla to the auditory hair cells on the cochlea.
Cochlear nucleus
One of a group of nuclei in the medulla that recieve auditory info. from the cochlea.
Superior olivary complex
A group of nuclei in the medulla; involved in auditory functions; including the localization of the source of sounds.
Lateral Lemniscus
A band of fibers running rostrally through the medulla and pons; carries fibers of the auditory system.
Tonotopic representation
A topographically organized mapping of diff. frequencies of sound that are represented ina particular brain region.
Olfactory epithelium
The epithelial tissue of the nasal sinus that covers the cribiform plate; contains the cilia of the olfactory receptors
Olfactory bulb
The protrusion at the end of the olfactory tract; recieves input from the olfactory receptors
Mitrial cell
A neuron located in the olfatory bulb that receives info. from olfactory receptors; axons of mitrial cells bring info. to the rest of the brain
Olfactory glomerulus
A bundle of dendrites of mitrial cells and the associated terminal buttons of the axons of olfactory receptors.
Olfactory pathway in the brain
Olfactory tract axons project directly to the AMYGDYLA and to two regions of the limbic cortex: pyriform and entorhinal cortex. The amygdyla sends olfactory info. to the hypothalamus, the entorhinal cortex sends it to the hippocampus and the pyriform cortex sends it to the hypothalamus and the orbitofrontal cortex, via the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus.
Transduction of olfactory info. (Action potentials)
G(olf) protein is able to activate an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic MP, which in turn can open sodium channels and depolarize the membrane of the olfactory cell. Each glomerus recieves info. from only one type of receptor, and "olfactopic" coding is maintained all the way to the olfactory cortex.
Perception of specific odors
The task of identifying odors is a spacial one. The brain recognizes odors y the patterns of activity created in the olfactory cortex. Differend odorant molecules attach to differend combinations of receptor molecules. Unique patterns of activation represent particular odorants.
Alpha activity
Smooth electrical activity of 8-12Hz recorded from the brain; generally associated with a state of relaxation or drowsiness.
beta activity
Irregular electrical activity of brain waves, generally associated with a state of arousal. Shows up in REM sleep.
theta activity
EEG activity of 3.5-7.5 Hz that occurs intermittently during early stages of slow wave sleep and REM sleep.
delta activity
Regular, synchronous electrical activity of less than 4 Hz ; occurs during the deepest stages of slow-wave sleep (3and 4)
REM sleep
A period of desynchronized EEG activity during sleep, at which time dreaming, rapid eye movements, and muscular paralysis occur; also called paradoxical sleep.
basic rest-activity cycle
A 90 minute cycle (in humans) of waxing and waning alertness, controlled by a biological clock in the caudal brain stem, controls cycles of REM sleep and slow wave sleep.
A sleep disorder chracterized by periods of irresistible sleep, attacks of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. Basically REM sleep triggered at inappropriate times...has been treated with anti-depressants or certain stimulants. Has been linked to hypocretin or lack thereof.
A peptide, aslo known as orexin, produced by neurons whose cell bodies are located in the hypothalamus, their destruction causes narcolepsy.
REM sleep behavior disorder
A neurological disorder in which the person does not become paralyzed during REM sleep and acts out on dreams.
Function of slow wave sleep
To allow the brain to rest, does not increase with increase in excercise but rather an increase in mental activity corresponds with an increase in slow wave sleep in that brain region.
fatal familial insomnia
A fatal inherited disorder characterized by progressive insomnia, culminating in death.
Function of REM sleep
Studies are inconclusive, but seems neccessary for the consolidation of memory and learning. Or in turn, increase in learning creates increase in REM sleep. Also seems neccessary in preparing the brain for growth in infants.
rebound phenomena
The increased frequency or intensity of a phenomenon after it has been temporarily suppressed, for example, the increase in REM sleep seen after a period of REM deprivation.
A chemical produced when increased neural activity requires the breakdown of glycogen stored in astrocytes; may increase delta activity during the next night's sleep and thus enable the region to recover from its energy expenditure.
Acetylcholine and sleep
One of the most important neurotransmitter involved in arousal, esp. of the cerebral cortex. Levels of ACh are highest during alertness and lowest during inactivity.
locus coeruleus
A dark colored group of noradrenergic cell bodies located in the pons near the rostral end of the floor of the fourth ventricle; involved in arousal and vigilance.
raphe nuclei
A group of nuclei located in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and midbrain, situated along the midline; contains serotonergic neurons. Serotonin levels highest while alert, lowest during inactivity.
tuberomammillary nucleus
A nucleus in the ventral posterior hypothalamus, just rostral to the mammillary bodies; contains histaminergic neurons involved in cortical activation and behavioral arousal.
neurotransmitters with high levels during wakefulness
Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, hypocretin are all involved with cortical activation.
ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA)
A group of GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area whose activity suppresses alertness and behavioral arousal and promotes sleep.
PGO wave (Pons, geniculate, occipital)
Bursts of phasic electrical activity originating in the pons, followed by activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. A characteristic of REM sleep.
Neural control of REM sleep
First activation of acetylocholinergic neurons in the peribrachial area of the dorsal lateral pons. These neurons activate brain waves through their connections with the leateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. Also activate neurons in the subcoerulear area that, through their connections with the nucleus magnocellularis of the medulla, produce muscular paralysis. Finally, these neurons cause cortical activation through connections with the thalamus, medial pontine reticular formation, and acetylcholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain.
peribrachial area
The region around the brachium conjunctivum, located in the dorsolateral pons; contains acetylcholinergic neurons incolced in the initiation of REM sleep.
medial pontine reticular formation (MPRF)
A region that contains neurons involved in the initiation of REM sleep; activated by acetylcholinergic neurons of the peribrachial area.
magnocellular nucleus
A nucleus in the medulla; involved in the muscular paralysis that accompanies REM sleep.
Five systems of neurons important for alert, active wakefulness
The acetylcholinergic system of the peribrachial area or the pons and basal forebrain, the noradrenergic system of the locus coeruleus, the serotonergic system of the raphe nuclei, the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus, and the hypocretinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus.
menstrual cycle
Growth of lining of the uterus, ovulation, development of corpus luteum and if pregnancy does not occur menstration.
estrous cycle
female reproductive cycle of mammals other than primates. Signifies fertile point in ovulation.
ovarian follicle
A cluster of epithelial cells that develops from the ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes estradiol and progesterone.
A steroid hormone produced by the ovary that maintains the endometrial lining of the uterus during the later part of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy; along with estradiol it promotes receptivity in femal mammals with estrous cycles.
refractory period
A period of time after a particular action (e.g. ejaculation) during which that action cannot occur again.
Coolidge effect
The restorative effect of introducing a new female sex partner to a male that has apparently become "exhausted" by sexual activity.
A spinal sexual reflex seen in many four-legged female mammals; arching of the back in response to approach of a male of to touching the flanks, which elevates the hindquarters.
A chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior or physiology of another animal; usually smelled or tasted
Lee-Boot effect
The slowing and eventual cessation of estrous cycles in groups of female animals that are housed together; caused by a pheromone in the animal's urine; first observed in mice
Whitten effect
The synchornization of mestrual or estrous cycles of a group of females; which occurs only in the presence of a pheromone in a male's urine.
Vandenbergh effect
The earlier onset of puberty seen in female animals that are housed with males; caused by a pheromone in the male's urine; first observed in mice.
Bruce effect
Termination of pregnancy caused by the odor of a pheromone in the urine of a male other than the one that impregnanted the female; first identified in mice
vomeronasal organ (VNO)
A sensory organ that detects the presence of certain chemicals especially when a liquid is actively sniffed; mediates the effects of some pheromones.
Medial preoptic area
An area of cell bodies just rostral to the hypothalamus; plays an essential role in male sexual behavior. Prenatal stress reduces size of sexually dimorphic nucleus, decreases sexual behavior. Injection of testosterone increases sexual behavior in castrated rats.
sexually dimorphic nucleus
A nucleus in the preoptic area that is much larger in males than in females; plays a role in male sexual behavior.
periaqueductal gray matter (PAG)
The region of the midbrain that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct; plays an essential role in various species-typical behaviors; including female sexual behavior. Destruction abolishes sexual behavior, Estradiol treatment or stimulation of VMH increases neural activity, contains estrogen and progestrone receptors.
nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi)
A nucleus of the medulla that recieves input from the medial preoptic area and contains neurons whose axons form synapses with motor neurons in the spinal cord that participate in sexual reflexes in males. Part of pathway between medial preoptic area and motor neurons in spinal cord.
ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)
A large nucleus of the hypothalamus located near the walls of the third ventricle; plays an essential role in female sexual behavior. Neurons contain estrogen and progestrone, mating causes Fos.
neural control of maternal behavior
The medial preoptic area (remember most important for male sexual behavior) is the most important forebrain structure for maternal behavior, and the ventral tegmental area and retrorubal field of the midbrain are the most important brain stem structures. Neurons in the medial preoptic area send axons caudally to the ventral tegmental area and the retrorubal reticular formation of the pons and medulla. If connections of the MPA and the brain stem are interuppted, maternal care ceases. Paternal behavior is also linked to the MPA, research has shown that monogamous rodents show less pronounced sexual dimorphism of the MPA than promiscous rodents.

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