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Soc. Exam 1 Review


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Critical Thinking
Objectively assesing ideas, statements, and information.
Manifest Functions
Anticipated or intended consequences of social institutions.
Newer and more personilized techniologies (e.g. pc, cd-rom, Fax machines, video games)
A set of assumptions and ideals that guide research questions, methods of analysis and interpretation, and developement of theory.
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
views social meaning arising through the process of social interaction (called interactionalism)
Social Integration
The extent to which individuals feel they are a meaningful part of society
ideal Type
a conceptual model or typology constructed from direct observation of a number of specific cases and representing the essential qualities found in those cases
Applied Sociology
uses sociological principles, social ideals, and ethical considerations to improve society
Conflict Perspective
views society as composed of diverse groups with conflicting values and interests
Pure Sociology
the study of society in an effort to understand ands explain natural laws that govern its evolution
Sociological Imagination
a quality of mind that provides an understanding of ourselves within the context of the larger society
Micro level analysis
focuses on the day to day ineractions of individuals and groups in specific social situations
Dramaturgical Analysis
uses the analogy of the theater to analyze social behavior
Labeling Approach
contends that people attach variosu labels to certain behaviors, individuals, and groups that became part of their social identity and shape others attitudes about and response to them
Mass Media
forms of comm. that transmit standardized messages to widespread audiences ( e. g. newspapers, magazines, books, radio, televison, and movies
Feminist Theory
studies, analyzes, and explains social phenomenons from gender-foucased perspective
Macro level Analysis
examines broader social structures and society as a whole
Structural Functionalist Perspective
views society as a system of independent an iterelated parts (functionalism or functional perspective
the use of observation, comparison, experimentation, and the historical method to analyze society
Latent Functions
the unitenede or unrecognized consequences of social institutions.
Theoretical perspective
a viewpont or particular way of looking at things
Sociological Thinking
Asking questions and questioning answers
Survey Research
Research using questionaires or interviews to obtain data
a statement that interelates two or more variables
Hawthorne effet
the phenomenon where subjects behavior is influenced by the fact that they r being studied
Secondary Analysis
the analysis of existing data
Operational definition
a definition that specifies how a concept is measured
experimental design
a research design that attempts to discover a cause-and effect relationship btw 2 variables
a construct that represents ways in which concepts vary or differ
experimental group
subjects exposed to the independent variable in an experiment
an arithmetic average, median=midpoint, half below half above
dependent variable
a variable that is changed b/c of the independent variable
independent variable
a variable that brings about change in another
the rules and guidelines followed in sociological research
a mesure indicating that 2 variables are related in such a way that a change in one is accomplished by a change in another
a set of interralated propositions, or statements, that attempt to explain some phenomenon
the figure that occurs most often in a set of data
an entire body of people to which the sociologist would like to generalize research findings
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning from general understanding or theory that is then tested through the observation or study of specific situations
the uses of multiple techniques to gather or analyze research data
Case Studies
qualitive techniques that involve intensive observation of a particular person, group or event
the extent to which a technique accurately measures what it purports to measure
a segment of the population
Control Group
subjects not exposed to the experimental variable in an experiment
Participant observation
a qualitive method in which the researcher systematically observes the people being studied while participating with them in their activities
inductive reasoning
the use of specific observtions to develop a general understanding
consistentency of measure
a relationship wherew a change in one variable creates a concomitant change in another variable
propositional statements about the relationship btw the concepts or vars under study
Research Objectives
The specific goals or purposes of a research project

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