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Hofstedes four dimensions of culture
power-distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity
asymmetrical worldview
goals of the internal organization not affected and resist change
symmetrical worldview
incorporates ideas of negotiation and satisfying publics
authoritarian organization culture
asymmetrical worldview, structured and formalized, centralized, individual accountability, high division of labor
The term \"internal publics\" means
employee publics
The chapter includes which of the following as a condition of effective working relationships with internal publics?
confidence and trust between employer and employees, Healthful, safe surroundings, satisfying status and participation for each person
Which of the following media serve as the primary source for internal communication?
printed publications
Which of the following do public relations practitioners use for controlled media coverage?
printed publications, such as newsletters, inserts, and enclosures, face-to-face contact, meetings, teleconferencing, and the intranet, video, film, and slide presentations
\"The sum total of shared values, symbols, meanings, beliefs, assumptions, and expectations that organize and integrate a group of people who work together\" is the definition of
organizational culture.
An organization\'s mission statement
encourages members in an organization to focus on its strengths, emphasizes areas and attributes in which it has success, helps employees set priorities and goals.
Research shows that employees prefer to receive organizational communication from
direct, face-to-face communication from their superiors.
Hofstede identified four dimensions of organizational culture. Which of these is NOT included?
Symmetrical world view
Which of these statements about participative culture is true?
Feedback is sought out and taken seriously.
Which of the following statements about the \"grape vine\" is true?
It sometimes is harmful or threatens to be.
t/f Businesses use an intranet system because it can disseminate information widely and rapidly.
t/f Organizational publications may be directed to many publics, including employees.
t/f Reprinted speeches, position papers, and \"backgrounders\" are controlled media tools.
t/f A symmetrical worldview is one in which an organization\'s goal is to get what it wants without having to change the way it does business.
t/f In participative organizational culture, dialogue and two-sided input are valued.
t/f Public relations practitioners must know how to communicate effectively with both internal and external publics.
t/f In-person verbal communication with supervisors is less important to employees than is printed newsletters.
t/f Electronic documents have replaced printed materials as the primary media for internal communication.
t/f Bulletin boards will likely remain an important medium of communication.
The best way to get the press to suppress or kill a story is to
Prevent situations that produce such stories.
According to the Newspaper Association of America, this percentage of all adults read a daily newspaper
Good media relations advice includes
stick to what journalists will consider news. keep media mailing lists current. send releases to only one (the most appropriate) journalist at each news medium.
Public service announcements
may be 10 seconds, 30 seconds, or 60 seconds in length. may be provided to radio or television. promote programs and services of government and voluntary services.
Which of the following is correct?
Practitioners serve a liaison role between organizations and the news media. Practitioners should train top executives to more effectively deal directly with the news media. Journalists and public relations practitioners have an adversarial relationship.
Which of the following is a recommended guideline for public relations practitioners when working with journalists?
Tell the truth, even if it hurts. Do not beg, carp, or ask for \"kills.\" Give service and know lead times.
Which of these best represents a disadvantage to using magazines to deliver information to publics?
Due to their early deadlines, public relations practitioners usually cannot use magazines to get the most recent information to their publics.
Which of the following is true about video news releases?
Local TV stations with smaller budgets and smaller budgets rely on video news releases to fill news holes.
Which of these newspapers is one of John C. Merrill\'s \"internationally elite\" newspapers?
New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Washington Post, and Christian Science Monitor
t/f The internet is useful as a public relations medium, providing direct and immediate access to specific target publics.
t/f Despite declines in newspaper readership in recent years, newspapers remain the workhorse of the public information system.
t/f Magazine publicity placement is almost essential for organizations seeking to influence national or specialized audiences.
t/f Being carried by a wire service such as Associated Press increases its credibility to editors and usually results in widespread coverage.
t/f Wire services and news syndicates are best used for timely stories with a limited locale.
t/f Video News Releases should avoid identifying what organization sponsored them.
t/f The adversarial relationship between public relations practitioners and the media is always detrimental to the public good.
t/f Since newspapers have lost their place as the primary news medium for a majority of Americans, they have little power in influencing the outcome of public debates.
t/f One problem with modern journalism is that the news media often cite other news media as sources of information.
t/f If a reporter comes to a public relations person with a news tip and asks for information, the public relations person is obliged to share the information with other reporters.
four step problem solving process
defining the problem, planning and programming, taking action and communicating, evaluating the program
The first step in the four-step problem-solving process is to
define the problem
The question \"What should we do and say, and why?\" is typically asked in which step of the problem-solving process?
second step
The chapter claims that public relations practitioners use very little research because
they neither understand nor appreciate the importance of research. many employers and clients think research is unnecessary and expensive. practitioners say they lack the time and funds to do research.
A useful problem statement should
be written in the present tense and describe the current situation. Identify those publics who are affected. describe the problem in specific and measurable terms.
Two important components of an internal situation analysis are
a communication audit and an updated organizational almanac.
One example of an informal research method is
a mail analysis
A disadvantage of mailed questionnaires as a formal research method is that they
typically produce low response rates.
Which of the following is an example of \"fire prevention\" public relations?
Catching rumors before they become widespread and part of the public\'s perception of the organization.
Which of the following statements about problem statements is true?
They answer the question, \"What is happening now?\"
Which of the following describes the role of an ombudsman (or ombuds officer)?
He or she investigates problems. He or she tries to solve problems. He or she simply creates an illusion of a responsive organization.
SWOT analysis:
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats
t/f The chapter defines \"research\" as the systematic gathering of information to describe and understand situations and to check out assumptions about publics and public relations consequences.
t/f A \"situation analysis\" is a concise summary of the situation.
t/f A situation analysis is also called a SWOT analysis, which is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Outreach, and Technologies.
t/f The research process is much like the problem-solving process because they both begin with inquiry and exploration, and move to action and implementation.
t/f Since they are unscientific, informal research methods are not as useful as formal research methods.
t/f When used appropriately, informal research can replace formal research.
t/f One advantage of formal research is that it is possible to make inferences from statistics gathered from representative samples.
t/f The problem definition process begins with research.
t/f Informal research methods can be used to describe problem situations.
t/f When conducting formal research, you must use your own data.
Strategic thinking includes which of the following?
Predicting or establishing a desired future goal state. Determining what forces will help or hinder movement toward a goal. Following a plan for achieving a desired goal.
The chapter sites which of the following examples as a lack of strategic planning?
The American Heart Association\'s \"seal of approval\" program. Exxon\'s handling of the 1989 tanker Valdez oil spill.
By planning for the future and anticipating conceivable developments, an organization\'s results will likely be
increased management participation and support. an integrated program that achieves specific goals.
An organization\'s most important expectation of its public relations department is
to protect its reputation
An inspirational, succinct, written statement of an organization\'s goals and objectives is called
its mission statement
As opposed go \"objectives,\" \"goals\"
are summative statements that spell out a program\'s overall outcomes.
People who recognize that they are somehow affected by a problem are called
aware publics
The key point about strategy is that it is used to
achieve a particular outcome
Which of the following is a way that public relations typically helps organizations achieve their missions?
Serving as the official channel of communication between an organization and its publics. Collecting and analyzing information on the changing knowledge, opinions and behaviors of key publics and stakeholders. Coordinating activities that affect an organization\'s relationships with its publics and stakeholders.
t/f \"Strategy\" involves determining basic long-term goals, adopting courses of action, and securing resources necessary for carrying out goals.
t/f In public relations practice, a strategy is an on-the-spot decision, whereas a tactic represents an overall game plan.
t/f A public relations strategic plan should avoide the \"learn-feel-do\" sequence because such an approach proves too subjective.
t/f The notion of a \"general public\" is the least useful reification to public relations practitioners.
t/f A program objective should be broad enough to anticipate various contingencies.
t/f The following is an example of a program objective that targets a predisposition outcome: \"To increase the percentage of drivers who use seat belts from the current 51 percent to at least 70 percent within 3 months after the program begins.\"
t/f Once a program has been researched, planned, and budgeted, the next step is to pretest it.
t/f Prior spur-of-the-moment decisions often result in difficult public relations problems in the future.
t/f In a planning mode, strategies develop over time, representing a pattern of decisions that respond to opportunities in the environment.
t/f Preparing a plan guarantees a program\'s success.

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